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One Hundred Years in Ceylon 


The Centenary Volume 


Church Missionary Society 












IN consequence of my having had the honour of com 
piling the general History of the Church Missionary 
Society, I am now asked by the Ceylon Committee that 
has arranged for the celebration of the Centenary of the 
Ceylon Mission, to introduce this present work, which 
tells the story of the Hundred Years of that Mission, 
and this I do with pleasure and thankfulness. The 
author, the Rev. J. W. Balding, is now the senior C.M.S. 
missionary in Ceylon, so far as length of service in the 
Island is concerned, having joined in 1881, and having 
therefore thirty-seven years experience. That honoured 
veteran, the Rev. W. E. Rowlands, indeed, went out 
fifty-seven years ago (1861), but he retired in 1884 and 
rejoined in 1907, so that his actual service in the field 
is less than Mr. Balding s. The book, therefore, is 
authoritative in an unusual degree. 

In 1868 a small Jubilee volume was prepared by the 
Ceylon missionaries. It was not an encouraging recital 
of the fifty years. 

Few Missions have had, in so long a period, more 
apparently scanty results to report. In my History, 
published thirty years later, I noticed this, and explained 
the causes (Vol. ii, p. 288), and I added that if a record 
of those thirty additional years were written, the tone 


would be very different (Vol. iii, p. 547). In the supple 
mentary fourth volume, published in 1916, I was thank 
fully able to present a much more hopeful account. 
Although I had even then to acknowledge that progress 
had been, as compared with that of several other 
Missions, exceptionally slow, yet on the other hand, 
the Mission had been exceptionally interesting in respect 
of the individual cases of conversions reported (Vol. iv, 
p. 257). This general impression will be confirmed by 
the present work, and the careful reader will find much 
to strengthen his faith in the Gospel and his thankful 
ness to God. 

Colombo, with Galle Face Church, the Ladies 
College, etc. ; Cotta and Baddegama, as centres of village 
work; Kandy, with Trinity College; the Itinerancies; 
the Tamil Coolie Mission ; Jaffna, and its isolated but 
important influence ; all these present features of real 
interest, though they may have little of the romance of 
Uganda, or the Punjab, or parts of China, or the Arctic 

In one respect Ceylon is unique. The Anglican 
Church there furnishes the spectacle of a self-governing 
body comprising white and coloured races working 
together in harmony and fellowship, with the native 
Christians in a decided majority, while the foreign 
Christians are no negligible minority, differing therefore 
from Colonial Churches like those of Canada or New 
Zealand on one side, and from Churches almost purely 
native as in China and Japan on the other. 

The Church in Ceylon has its own constitution 
and its own Synodical administration, although 


ecclesiastically a single diocese in the Province of India 
and Ceyion. It presents, on a small scale, a picture of 
what we hope in time to see on the larger field of India 

I heartily commend this book to readers both at home 
and in the mission field, and to the Divine blessing. 

January, 1918. 



PREFACE ... ... ... ... iii 

INTRODUCTION ... ... ... j 




II. THE SINHALESE ... ... 11 

III. BUDDHISM ... ... ... 16 

IV. THE TAMILS ... ... ... 24 

V. HINDUISM ... ... ... ... 28 


VII. EDUCATION ... ... ... .., 43 

VIII. C.M.S. IN CEYLON ... ... 53 

IX. KANDY ... ... 68 

X. JAFFNA ... ... ... 88 


XII. COTTA ... ... 128 


XIV. COLOMBO ... ... ... ... 155 





CONCLUSION ... ... ... ... 205 

A HYMN FOR CEYLON ... ... ... 206 



Ceylon C.M.S. Missionaries (Men) ... 207 

Sinhalese Clergy ... ... ... 225 

Tamil Clergy ... ... ... 228 

Women C.M.S. Missionaries ... 231 


New Constitution for the Ceylon Mis 
sionary Conference ... ... 236 


EUGENE STOCK, in the History of the Church 


Page 34, line 6 from bottom for it read * in 
Page 165, line 17, /or women read 
Page 190, line 5, for having too great for her - read 
having proved too great for her 

Pa a g n e d S n 2 3 ^^ ^ P f Itinerancies Between Teldeniy, 
and Dunuvila read Urugala . 

^^^^^^^^ ^__ 
have presented in subsequent years more manifest signs 

of the working of the grace of God. 

Early in 1915, in view of the near approach of the 
centenary of the C.M.S. in Ceylon, the Standing Com 
mittee of the Conference suggested the formation of a 
Centenary Central Committee, so that the Centenary in 
1918 might be widely and properly commemorated. 

A representative committee was accordingly formed, 
with the Secretary of the Mission (the Rev. A. E. 
Dibben) as chairman. Two secretaries, one clerical 




Ceylon C.M.S. Missionaries (Men) ... 207 

Sinhalese Clergy ... ... 225 

Tamil Clergy 

Women C.M.S. Missionaries ... 231 


DR. EUGENE STOCK, in the History of the Church 
Missionary Society published in 1899, in connection 
with the Centenary of the Parent Society, refers to the 
Jubilee Sketches, or an Outline of the work of the 
C.M-S. in Ceylon during fifty years, 1818-1868 written 
by the late Rev. J. Ireland Jones, and published in 
Colombo, in the following terms : In 1868, the Ceylon 
Mission celebrated its Jubilee. The missionaries then 
brought out a small volume of " Jubilee Sketches," giving 
the history of each station during the fifty years. This 
little book is singularly modest in its estimate of the 
work done and the results achieved. If the interesting 
little book were now to have a new edition, the whole 
tone would be different. Few missions had been, at the 
end of fifty years, more scanty in results. Few missions 
have presented in subsequent years more manifest signs 
of the working of the grace of God. 

Early in 1915, in view of the near approach of the 
centenary of the C.M.S. in Ceylon, the Standing Com 
mittee of the Conference suggested the formation of a 
Centenary Central Committee, so that the Centenary in 
1918 might be widely and properly commemorated. 

A representative committee was accordingly formed, 
with the Secretary of the Mission (the Rev. A. E. 
Dibben) as chairman. Two secretaries, one clerical 


(Rev. A. M. Walmsley) and one lay (Mr. W. Wadsworth) 
and a treasurer (Rev. J. W. Ferrier) were also 

In addition, members of committee were nominated 
by the District Church Councils. 

It was proposed that the Centenary should be made 
the occasion of the raising of a sum of at least Rs. 
50,000, as a thank offering, and that this should have 
four objectives : 

(1) a Capital Fund for advance Missionary Move 
ments, (2) a Pension Fund for Catechists, Biblewomen 
and School Teachers, (3) a Capital Fund to meet 
opposition in Educational Work, and (4) to provide 
funds for Itinerating Bands. 

Several Centenary Pamphlets have been published, 
and the writer of No. 3 says, We do not want to make 
this centenary effort merely a matter of raising funds- 
To do so, would be to fall very short of our real needs. 
What are they ? First of all, this must be a time of 
increased prayer and re-consecration. If we are all in 
the line of God s will, praying earnestly for the extension 
of His kingdom, the effort and the means will be forth 
coming, but money, without His Spirit to direct and 
control and bless it, can never fulfil its purpose. Let 
the Centenary be borne to us on a great wave of prayer, 
and we shall find it stored with a rich cargo of blessings. 
Let us remember three watchwords : (1) Thanksgiving, 
for the past, with all its mercies and blessings. (2) 
Humiliation, as we think of the present, with its many 
unanswered calls, unused opportunities, and unentered 
doors. (3) Advance, in the future, as we remember that 


in the future lies the coming of the Lord, so closely 
connected with the evangelization of the world. 

Further, it was agreed that a history of the work of 
the C.M.S. in Ceylon should be written, which it was 
hoped would find its way into many homes, and thus 
sustain and deepen interest in our work, and prove a 
source of information and renewed effort. 

This I was asked to undertake, and the following pages 
are the result, which I trust will draw forth praise and 
thankfulness for God s goodness and help in the past, 
and call forth more prayer and work in His cause in the 

I have chosen as the title for the book, One hundred 
years in Ceylon, or the Story of the C.M.S. there from 
1818 to 1918. It is the natural title to take for a 
centenary volume, and other writers on Ceylon seem to 
have been impelled to describe their books in terms of 
years, for instance, 

Two Happy Years in Ceylon, by Miss Gordon- 


Seven Years in Ceylon, by Miss M. Leitch. 
Eight Years in Ceylon, by Sir Samuel Baker. 
Eleven Years in Ceylon, by Major Forbes. 
Fifty Years in Ceylon, by Major Skinner. 
A Century in Ceylon, by Miss Helen Root. 
Although I have been a missionary in Ceylon for more 
than a third part of the one hundred years, I cannot lay 
claim to much that is original in the pages of this 
history, as I have drawn and compiled, largely and 
liberally, from the Jubilee Sketches published in 1868 ; 
the small pamphlet, the Ceylon Mission published 


by the C.M.S. in 1900; the History of the C.M.S. 
published in 1899 ; the Historical Sketch of Ceylon 
published by the S.P.G. ; Ceylon at the Census of 1911, 
by Mr. E. B. Denham ; the Book of Ceylon and 
Golden Tips, by Mr. H. W. Cave ; Ceylon, by Dr. 
J. C. Willis; History of Ceylon, by Mr. Donald 
Obeyesekere ; the Ceylon Handbooks published by the 
Messrs. Ferguson ; the local Reports of the C.M.S. 
Ceylon Mission ; and many other writers. To each and 
all of these I am much indebted and tender grateful 
thanks, as well as to the many friends who have given 
valuable advice and assistance, and last but not least to 
the kind writer of the preface. 


7 ColomlH, 



No country in the world, except possibly Egypt, has such a 
long continuous history and civilization, with tradition, fable 
and legend encircling it from the remotest times. The 
Mohammedans assert that Ceylon was given to our first 
parents, Adam and Eve, as a new Elysium to console them 
for the loss of Paradise. According to the Indian poem, the 
Ramayana, (500 B.C.) a prince named Rama is said to have 
come with a great army from India to Ceylon about three 
thousand years ago and conquered and killed the king. 

It is also supposed to have been part of the region of Ophir 
and Tarshish, from which the ships of King Solomon obtained 
gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks. The ancient 
Greeks and Romans knew the island as Taprobane, and 
the poet Milton has preserved the name in his great 

Embassies from regions far remote, 
From India and the golden Chersonese, 

And from utmost Indian isle, Taprobane. 

To the people of India it has been known for centuries as 
Lanka the Resplendent, and the pearl-drop on the brow 
of Ind, whilst the Siamese called it the divine Lanka. To 
the Chinese it was the island of jewels, to the Persians the 
land of the hyacinth and ruby, to the Arabs it was Seren- 
dib , to the ancient Sinhalese the island of the lion race, 
and to travelled Europeans the Eden of the Eastern wave. 


It has been immortalized by Bishop Heber, in the well-known 
missionary hymn, 

What though the spicy breezes 
Blow soft o er Ceylon s isle 

Though every prospect pleases 

By another poet it is 

Confessed to be the brightest gem 
In Britain s orient diadem 

Ceylon lies to the south-east of the continent of India, and 
is about the size of Ireland. .Its length from north to south 
is 271 miles, and its greatest width 137 miles. Its area is 
about 25,000 square miles. The south of the island lies with 
in six degrees of the equator, and the average temperature 
near the coast is between eighty and ninety degrees in the 
shade, a climate always humid and enervating. In the hills 
however a temperature as low as twenty-six degrees is some 
times experienced. The annual rainfall varies from thirty-six 
inches in the driest parts of the island to two hundred inches 
in the wettest whereas the rainfall of Great Britain range? 
from a minimum of twenty-two inches to a maximum of 
seventy inches. Time is five hours and twenty minutes 
ahead of Greenwich, so it is about noon in Colombo when 
England is only half awake. 

Ceylon has a population of over four millions of people, and 
among these, eighty races are represented. The Sinhalese 
number 2,714,880, the Tamils 1,060,432, the Moors 266,876, 
the Burghers 26,857, the Malays 13,092, the Europeans 
8,555 and the Veddahs 5,342. 

The Veddahs are supposed to be the descendants of the 
aborigines the yakkos or devils, as they are called in native 
legend. These were conquered by an invading race who in 
543 B.C., swept down from the valley of the Ganges, com 
manded by Wijayo, the son of a king of Bengal. He founded 


the royal dynasty which held sway for about 2,300 years. 
The Sinhalese (from Sinha, a lion) are the descendants of 
these conquerors. They speak an Aryan language of the 
Sanskrit type, and are divided into two great sections, 
Kandyan and Low-Country Sinhalese. Both are descended 
from the same stock and are only distinguished outwardly by 
difference of dress. The Tamils are of Dravidian origin, and 
are the descendants of mercenaries and invaders from South 
ern India who settled in the Island ages ago. Others are 
recent immigrants who corns over in large numbers from 
India to work on the tea and rubber plantations. The Moors, 
who are energetic and enterprising traders, are probably de 
scendants of Arabs, who conquered some coast towns in the 
eleventh century, and intermarried with the women of the 
land. They are Mohammedans, as are also the Malays, who 
were brought to Ceylon by the Dutch. 

The Burghers are the descendants of the Portuguese and 
Dutch settlers, and form an influential part of the community. 
Tne Dutch Burghers are largely employed in Government 
offices, law and medicine. 

The Europeans consist chiefly of Government officials, the 
military, merchants, planters, and missionaries. 

The principal seat of Government is at Colombo, which 
under the name of Kalambu, was described by the Moors in 
1340, as the finest city in Serendib. It has one of the 
finest harbours in the world, and all steamers going to or from 
the East make it a port of call. 

Kandy, the capital of the interior, is situated in an amphi 
theatre surrounded by wooded hills and forest-clad mountains, 
seventy-two miles from Colombo, nearly two thousand feet 
above the sea, whilst in Nuwara Eliya, six thousand feet 
above sea level, Europe amid Asia smiles. 

Ceylon is an island of indescribable beauty. Nature has 
showered her charms with lavish hand, and has welded 


together giant peaks, rippling streams, dense jungles and 
pleasant plains into one sweet fairyland. There is beauty 
everywhere, in the wealth of vegetation and foliage, the rich 
colourings of birds and insects, and a thousand other objects. 
A belt of rich alluvial soil round the coast waves with dense 
groves of coconut, palmyra, sago, areca, and other palms. 
There is an abundance of fruit, such as mango, rose-apple, 
guava, durian, prickly-pear, sour-sop, lovi-lovi, custard-apple, 
cashew nut, pomelo, tamarind, pomegranate, pineapple, man- 
gosteen, orange and lime. 

Melons and cucumbers, papaws and bananas, breadfruit 
and jak, cinnamon, cacao, cardamoms, pepper, nutmegs, 
cinchona, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, lemon and citronella 
grass all have their place. 

There are about three thousand species of native plants, 
two hundred and thirty different kinds of ferns, and over one 
hundred and sixty-eight species of orchids growing wild. 
Paddy or rice cultivation has been the chief agricultural 
pursuit of the people from time immemorial, and although 
sixty varieties of rice are grown, the quantity raised is not 
sufficient for the wants of the people. For many years 
coffee cultivation was the staple industry of the European 
planters, but a fungoid pest, Hemeleia vastatrix, practically 
destroyed this shrub, and tea took its place. In 1873 only 
23 Ibs. of tea were exported, but now nearly 200,000,000 Ibs. 
are exported annually. 

The fauna of the island includes a number of species 
which are not found in any other country. There are superb 
butterflies, black and grey monkeys, lemurs, civet-cats, 
cheetahs and bears, wild elephants (protected by Govern 
ment), wild buffaloes (also protected), crocodiles, porcu 
pine, pangolin, sambur, wild pig, jackals and twenty-two 
species of bats. Amongst the owls there is one called the 
devil bird uttering most fearful cries, which have been 




compared with those of a woman being murdered, or a child 
tortured. Forty-three of the one hundred and thirty-three 
species of reptiles, have not been found elsewhere. Of the 
snakes, eight species are poisonous, the most dangerous being 
the cobra and tic polonga. One thousand five hundred species 
of beetles are found in the country, and mosquitoes, ticks, 
sand flies, leeches and other creatures make their presence felt 
and known. 

The seas abound in fish, trout have been introduced into 
upcountry streams, singing fish live in the hot water wells 
on the east coast, another fish only thrives when half buried, 
in mud, and a kind of perch can make its way across dry 
land unaided by legs. 

The island is also renowned for its precious stones, the chief 
of these being the ruby and sapphire, to which may be added 
the catseye, the star ruby, star sapphire, amethyst, alexandrite, 
moonstone, garnet, chrysolite, chrysoberyl and tourmaline. 

Iron is also found, and plumbago, otherwise known as 
graphite or blacklead, and pearls are fished up from the 
oyster banks on the north-west coast. 

Mr. H. W. Cave in his Book of Ceylon writes : To 
those who have the most extensive experience of East and 
West, the claim of Ceylon to be regarded as the very gem of 
the earth will not seem extravagant. The economic results due 
to its situation in the eastern seas, a spot on which converge 
the steamships of all nations for coal, and the exchange of 
freight and passengers, its wealth and diversity of agricultu 
ral and mineral products, the industry of the inhabitants 
both colonists and natives these, together with its scenery 
and the glamour of its unrivalled remains of antiquity, entitle 
Ceylon to a place of. high distinction among the dependencies 
of the empire. 

Sir Emerson Tennent, who resided in the island for 
some years as Lieutenant-Governor and Colonial Secretary, 


in his interesting and valuable work on the colony, 
writes : 

There is no island in the world, Great Britain itself not 
excepted, that has attracted the attention of authors in so 
many distant ages and so many different countries a> Ceylon, 
there is no nation in ancient or modern times possessed of a 
language or literature, the writeis of which have not at some 
time made it their theme. Its aspect, its religion, its anti 
quities and productions, have been described as well by 
classic Greeks as by those of the lower empire, by the 
Romans, by the writers of China, Burmah, India and 
Cashmere, by ths geographers of Arabia and Persia, by the 
mediaeval voyagers of Portugal and France, by the annalists 
of Portugal and Spain, by the merchants and adventurers of 
Holland and by the travellers and topographers of Great 
Britain. . . . Ceylon, from whatever direction it is approach 
ed, unfolds a scene of loveliness and grandeur unsurpassed, if 
it be rivalled, by any land in the universe. The traveller from 
Bengal, leaving behind the melancholy delta of the Ganges 
and the torrid coast of Coromandel, or the adventurer from 
Europe recently inured to the sands of Egypt, and the 
scorched headlands of Arabia, alike are entranced by the 
vision of beauty which expands before him as the island 
rises from the sea, its lofty mountains covered by luxuriant 
forests, and its shores, till they meet the ripple of the waves, 
bright with the foliage of perpetual spring. 



THE origin of the Sinhalese has given rise to much specula 
tion. The Mahawansa J (chapter VI) states that the grand 
mother of Wijaya was Suppadevio, a princess of Bengal, who 
secretly fled with a caravan chief bound for the Maghadha 
country. In the jungle in the land of Lala, she was carried 
off by a lion, by whom she had a son called Sinhabahu, who 
slew his lion father and became king of Lala, and founded a 
city called Sinhapura. Wijaya was his son, who with his 
followers arrived in the island about 543 B.C. 

By whatever means the monarch Sinhabahu slew the 
Sinha (lion) his sons and descendants are called Sinhala (the 
lion slayers). Lanka having been conquered by a Sinhala, it 
obtained the name of Sinhala or Sihala. It is probable 
that the lion was a bold and daring bandit, known by the 
name of Sinha, the lion. 

The most generally accepted theory however is, that the pro 
genitors of the Sinhalese were Aryan settlers from the north of 
India. This is borne out by language, customs, and subse 
quent history. The ancient poem Ramayana (500 B.C.) and 
the inscriptions of Asoka (250 B.C.) prove early intercourse 
between India and Ceylon. The Sinhalese language is one of 
the group of Indo-Aryan languages of which Sanskrit is the 
literary type. It is unknown in India, and its preservation in 
Ceylon is valuable evidence of the distinct development of the 
Sinhalese race. It has borrowed largely from Sanskrit, Pali 
1 An ancient History of Ceylon. 


and Tamil, and many Portuguese, Dutch, Malay and English 
words have become naturalized in it. 

The Sinhalese literature consists of works written in pure 
Sinhalese, now called Elu, free from Sanskrit foreign words. 
The Buddhist scriptures, or the sayings of the founder of 
Buddhism, were first reduced to writing in Ceylon, in 85 B.C. 
The language of most of the sacred books is Pali, which is not 
understood by the common people, and many of the Sinhalese 
commentaries are written in an antiquated style. 

The Mahawansa is a dynastic history of the island 
written by Buddhist monks, to cover twenty-three centuries 
from 543 B.C. to A.D. 1758. 

Before the dawn of civilization in England, the Sinhalese 
were a nation possessing beautiful cities and wonderful 
temples, and maintaining a high type of civilization. Being 
keen agriculturists they brought the whole country into a high 
state of productiveness by means of irrigation. The inhabi 
tants of the Sinhalese highlands, of which Kandy is the capital, 
are called Kandyans or Upcountry Sinhalese. They are of a 
stronger and more independent character than the people of 
the plains, or low-country, and preserved their freedom intact 
throughout the Portuguese and Dutch periods. A Sinhalese 
writer says The Kandyan and Low-country Sinhalese are as 
distinct from each other in their dress, manners and customs 
and in their very ideas and manner of thinking as if they 
formed two different races, rather than two sections of one 

The distinction is every year lessened, by increasing inter 
marriage, opening up of the country by improved means of 
communication, the creation of new standards of comfort, and 
the spread of education and Christianity. 

Marriages take place at an early age, though not so early 
as in India, the daughters as a rule marrying before the 


Superstition abounds and lucky days are sought, for begin 
ning any important work, for marriages, and even for sending 
children to school. Astrologers are consulted on every event 
of life. Devil ceremonies for the sick are of nightly occur 
rence, and planet-worship is practised. Charms are worn by 
the mass of the villagers, and pots spotted with lime are hung 
up in the vegetable gardens to avert the evil eye. Fishers on 
the sea and reapers in the harvest field use a language they 
suppose the evil spirits will not understand. Caste, in the 
matter of marriages is extremely rigid, and sometimes strong 
in social intercourse, but as affecting trade it is almost dead. 

The Sinhalese are a graceful race, with delicate features. 
The men wear a jacket, and a cloth round the waist reaching 
to the ankles. They usually wear their hair long, drawn 
back from the face and tied in a knot at the back. A semi 
circular tortoise-shell comb on the top of the head is frequently 
used by the men of the low-country. Many are now adopting 
short hair and English dress as well as language. 

Intellectually they are capable of anything, but as a race 
they are perhaps lacking in energy. Educated Sinhalese now 
take high and honourable positions in the various professions, 
and in Government service up to the Legislative Council 
and the Supreme Court bench. Agriculture is the chief 
employment of the people and there are good artisans who 
excel in wood-carving, carpentry and brass work. It is 
not easy to win the confidence of the people at first, as they 
are of a very independent and somewhat suspicious turn of 
mind, but are responsive to kindness and confidence. Euro 
pean habits and customs have a great attraction for them, and 
the more progressive have a great desire for English education. 

The following is the judgment of Sir William Gregory, a 
former governor, written after he retired from the island : 

The people are pleasant to govern, they are quick-witted 
and intellectual, and the higher classes singularly well-bred 


and taking in their deportment. I think too, there are indica 
tions of the quality of gratitude, in the existence of which in 
the East I had long disbelieved. I am sure much may be 
done with them by kindness, courtesy, and respectful treat 
ment. I have known some whom I would trust as implicitly 
as I would Englishmen, and I am as confident as one can 
ever be of human conduct, that if future rulers of Ceylon will 
endeavour to induce the natives to trust them and rely on them, 
much more of the administration of the country may be 
vested in them. Weakness and moral and physical timidity 
are their main faults, and as you well know, cowardice is a 
difficult defect to cure. The way to deal w th such a race is 
to give them confidence and encouragement, to reward even 
ostentatiously good conduct, fidelity and strength, but to be 
down on offenders with relentless severity. I have pursued 
ihis course, and without egotism I can say that I believe no 
Governor ever before succeeded in inspiring such a universal 
trust in his motives. 

A rebellion of the Kandyan Sinhalese occurred in 1817-19. 
The first outbreak was in Uva, and the Government Agent of 
Badulla was killed by the rebels. The people were not 
altogether pleased to be governed by foreigners, and the chiefs 
were discontented when they found they were less respected, 
.and the greater part of their power taken away. Some of the 
rebels were beheaded, and others banished to the Mauritius. 
A change was also made in the relations between the British 
Government and Buddhism. When the British took Kandy 
in 1815, a treaty was made in which Buddhism was declared 
. inviolable, and its rites and temples were promised protec 
tion and maintenance. It was found that the Buddhist priests 
were the chief promoters of the rebellion, so in the new treaty 
it was stated that the priests as well as the ceremonies of 
Buddhism shall receive the respect which in former times 
was shown to them. 


There were two small risings of the Sinhalese in 1820 and 
1823, but in 1848 a small rebellion broke out in Matale and 
Kurunegala. There had been unrest for some time and 
resentment towards the new taxes on dogs, guns and boats, 
the stamp-tax, and especially the road-tax. Riotous meetings 
were held protesting against the taxes, and a rebellion broke 
out, but it was at an end in less than three months. Some of 
the ringleaders were banished to Malacca. In 1866 there 
were serious food riots in Colombo, Kandy and Galle, owing 
to the high price of rice. 

For the next fifty years everything was peaceful, till in 
May 1915 serious riots occurred in many places, which led to 
considerable loss of life, the proclamation of martial law, 
and the imprisonment of some 6,000 men, under sentences 
varying from a few weeks detention to death. Religious and 
economic considerations led the Sinhalese mob to attack the 
Mohammedans or Mcors. The Mohammedans had protested 
against a Buddhist religious procession passing their mosque 
at Gampola, and their protest had been upheld in the law- 
courts. They also boasted that they would interfere with the 
great Kandy perahera in August the most important proces 
sion in Ceylon and tried, though in vain, to prevent the erec 
tion of a dansala, or booth, in Kandy for the free distribution 
of food on Buddha s birthday. These steps aroused religious 
animosity, which was intensified by the economic hatred of 
the Moors, caused chiefly by jealousy on account of their 
superior success as traders. The riots broke out on the 
morning of the 29th of May, when a mosque which had been 
specially aggressive in its objections to dansalas and proces 
sions, was wrecked by the Sinhalese, and in the evening of 
that day bloodshed began. The riots were quelled after a few 
weeks, the ringleaders punished, and heavy fines imposed 
upon the inhabitants to repair the damage done to property. 



THE population of Ceylon in 1911 was 4,110,367 ; of these 
2,714,880 were Sinhalese. In the Census returns for that 
year 2,474,170, entered themselves as Buddhists. 

Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, lived and died 
in Northern India in the sixth century B.C. At the age of 
twenty-nine years he undertook what is called the Great 
Renunciation by forsaking his family and departing into the 
jungle, to discover by his own unaided efforts how deliver 
ance from the ills and changes, ,to which mankind was sub 
ject, could be realized. At the end of six years of meditation 
he achieved his aim and while sitting near a Bo Tree (ficus 
religiosa) became Buddha, i. e. the enlightened one. He 
declared he was free from all desire and was capable of com 
prehending all things past, present and future. With regard 
to the beginning of matter and life, he asserted that it was 
unknowable. In one of his first sermons he took as his text 
the words, Everything burns, and said that nothing is 
permanent, and that the comprehension of this fact was 
essential to the attainment of the summum bonuin of his 
religion nirvana. Buddha commenced to preach at the age 
of thirty-five and died at the age of eighty. 

In the seventeenth year of the reign of Asoka, king of 
Maghada, in India, in the third century after Buddha s death, 
a convocation of Buddhists was held and it was decided to 
send missionaries to Ceylon. Prince Mahindo, the son of the 
king, was sent about the year 307 B.C. and succeeded in 


converting Tissa, the king of Ceylon and many of his subjects. 
Tissa sent to Asoka for the right collar bone of Buddha, and 
over this was erected the Thuparama dagoba, in Anuradhapura. 
Shortly after this Sanghamitta, the younger sister of Mahindo, 
came to Ceylon bringing with her a branch of the sacred 
Bo Tree. Buddha is said to have visited the island on three 
occasions, knowing that Ceylon would be the place where 
his religion would be most glorified, and on the last occa 
sion is said to have left the impression of his foot on Adam s 
Peak. In 85 B.C. five hundred priests met in a rock-temple 
at Aluwihare, near Matale, and there the Tripitaka or 
Threefold Collection of Buddha s sayings, with notes, were 
written down. Previously the doctrines were committed to 
memory and handed down orally. 

In A.D. 313, the relic, Buddha s tooth, was brought to 
Ceylon by a Brahman princess, hidden in the folds of her 
hair, to prevent its falling into the hands of enemies. 

In A.D. 1305 King Bahu IV built many temples, and during 
his reign the Jatakas or five hundred birth stories of 
Buddha were translated from Pali into Sinhalese. 

The canonical scriptures of Buddhism contain more than 
two million lines, about two feet each in length of manuscript, 
and treat of the most abstruse and metaphysical subjects, as 
well as of moral duties. The raison d etre of Buddhism 
must be looked for in the pantheism and sacerdotalism which 
prevailed in Buddha s time and country. The Brahmans 
taught that every particle of matter was a visible portion of 
the unseen God and that worship addressed to it was the 
same as worship addressed to Him. They also had become 
unpopular on account of their extreme pretensions to superi 
ority with regard to caste. The Ceylon priests in a petition 
to the late King Edward regarding their temple-lands, said 
that Buddha did not inculcate the worship of any God, and 
that the temples were not built for, nor dedicated to, the worship 


of any supernatural being. Answer 122 in the Buddhist 
Catechism, published by the late Colonel Olcott says, The 
Buddhist priests do not acknowledge or expect anything from a 
divine power. A personal God is only a shadow thrown 
upon the void of space by the imagination of ignorant men. 

Buddha repeatedly told his followers to look to themselves 
alone for salvation, so prayer to a superhuman being is un 
known and unpractised. Professor Monier Williams says, 
It is a strange irony of fate that Buddha himself should 
have been not only deified and worshipped, but also repre 
sented by more images than any other being ever idolized in 
any part of the world. 

The obliteration of the doctrines relating to the Supreme 
Being of the Universe and the soul of man has made Bud 
dhism generally inoperative in the lives of its adherents. 

Buddhism teaches that a man s present existence was 
preceded by unnumbered lives in past ages, and will be 
succeeded by countless others, unless, like Buddha, we snap 
the chain of desire which links us to life. The arbiter of any 
particular state of being is karma action. This is taught 
in the oft-quoted saying of the Buddhists, who, when wish 
ing to show what is the doctrine of rewards and punishments, 
say, Kala, kala de, phala, phala de, the equivalent of As 
a man sows, so shall he reap. 

Dr. R. S. Copleston, in his valuable work Buddhism, past 
and present, says : Buddhism does not hold that there is any 
such thing as a permanent independent soul, existing in or 
with the body and migrating from one body to another. The 
self or personality has no permanent reality ; it is the result 
of certain elements coming together, a combination of facul 
ties and characters. No one of these elements is a person, or 
soul, or self, but to their combination the term self is popu 
larly given. The death of a man is the breaking up of this 
ombination, not the separation of soul from body, but the 


dissolution both of body and of the aggregate of faculties and 
characters on which life depended. 

On the death of any living being whose Karma is not yet 
exhausted, another being comes into 1 existence, to whom the 
residue of the karma is transferred. This second being is the 
same as the first and yet not the same. 

Buddhism lays stress upon four fundamental truths called 
the Four noble Truths, viz: 

(1) All existence is suffering, (2) The origin of suffer 
ing is desire, (3) The cessation of suffering is brought about 
by the removal of desire, (4) The way to the attainment of 
cessation of suffering is by carrying out the precepts, until 
Nirvana is reached. 

The course of conduct which, if adopted, will lead to the 

removal of desire is called the Noble Eight-fold Path, viz : 

(1) Right opinion, (2) Right resolve, (3) Right speech, 

(4) Right employment, (5) Right conduct, (6) Right effort, 

(7) Right thought, (8) Right self-concentration. 

Every priest is bound to abstain from the following ten 
things, (dahasil};\. Killing, 2. Theft, 3. Unchastity, 4. 
Falsehood, 5. Alcoholic drink, 6. Solid food after midday, 
7. Dancing, 8. Perfumes and ornaments, 9. High or broad 
beds, 10. Receiving of gold or silver. The lay adherent is 
only bound to abstain from the first five of these (pansil). 

Buddha himself issued no regulacions about religious ritual 
or worship, because it was opposed to that state of self-reliance 
which he insisted on. All that we find now relating to 
temples, images and offerings was instituted later. He estab 
lished an order of celibates, who were to devote the whole of 
their lives to the subjugation of their passions, and to exhort 
others to join their order. Buddhism has adopted many 
ceremonies of the Hindus in order to obtain popular sympathy 
and processions with dancing, jugglers, music, clowns and 
elephants are frequently held to attract the public. The 


people give alms to the priests, feed beggars, make pilgrimages, 
prostrate themselves before images, relics, trees, dagobas and 
footprints, visit temples at the changes of the moon, and 
recite their creed, Buddham saranam gachchami, Dhatnmam 
saranam gachchami, Sangham saranam gachchami I take 
refuge in Buddha, in the doctrine, in the priesthood. 

For some years past there has come into prominence the 
belief in the coming of another Buddha, the Maitri or 
Metteyya, the loving one. Buddha made the following 
prophecy : Man s average age will dwindle through sin to ten 
years, and will then rise again to eighty thousand years ; there 
will then arise a Buddha named Metteyya, endowed with all 

Many of the Buddhists now centre all their hopes of 
Nirwana in the coming of this Maitri Buddha, who is to be 
righteousness, knowledge and love, believing that the love he 
will inspire by his personality and preaching will do what 
they cannot now do. Animism or demon worship which 
existed before the introduction of Buddhism, still holds its 
own, and the devil priests are important functionaries in the 
village communities, having less philosophy but more power 
than the Buddhist priests. Bishop R. S. Copleston says, It 
is the devil priest and not the Bhikku who is the real pastor 
of the people. 

According to the Census of 1911, there were in Ceylon, 
7,774 Buddhist priests, 3,019 ebittayas, or attendants on the 
priests, 948 persons engaged in temple service, 1,305 devil 
dancers and 468 astrologers. Buddhism has wealthy endow 
ments, and four hundred thousand acres of land belong to the 

About thirty years ago a Buddhist Temporalities Ordi 
nance was passed by the Government, and a few years later 
a Mr. Bowles Daly, LL.D. of Dublin University, and once 
a clergyman of the Church of England, was appointed 


Commissioner to enquire into the working of the Act. For 
some years he had made Ceylon his head-quarters, identifying 
himself with the Buddhists, and endeavouring to excite among 
them a revival of religious zeal. He visited 1,300 of the 
Pansalas or monasteries, and, in his report to Government, is 
scathing in denunciation of the general character of the 

For the last thirty years the Buddhists have been very 
active and aggressive, through what is called the Buddhist 
revival which was commenced by American and English 
Theosophists. A catechism was published, with the approval 
of the high priest, and in the preface it states The signs 
abound that of all the world s great creeds, that one is destined 
to be the much talked of religion of the future which shall be 
found in least antagonism with nature and with law. Who 
dares predict that Buddhism will not be the one chosen ? It 
further says, Various agencies, among them, conspicuously, 
the wide circulation of Sir Edwin Arnold s beautiful poem 

The Light of Asia ", have created a sentiment in favour of 
Buddhistic philosophy, which constantly gains strength. It 
seems to commend itself to Freethinkers of every shade of 
opinion. The whole school of French Positivists are practi 
cally Buddhists. This Catechism further states The word 

religion " is most inappropriate to apply to Buddhism, which 
is not a religion but a moral philosophy. 

In addition, vernacular schools as well as English and 
Boarding schools have multiplied rapidly, some of them 
taught by European teachers, and itinerant preachers pene 
trate to remote villages copying Christian phraseology and 
Christian missionary methods. Sunday schools, Young Men s 
Buddhist Associations, tract distribution, carol singers during 
the Sinhalese New Year, parodies of Christian hymns, 
Buddhist cards for Buddha s birthday, newspapers, a 
Buddhist Daily Light, an Imitation of Buddha, a 


Funeral Discourse, pictures of events in the life of Buddha, 
a Buddhist flag, have all been brought into being. 

We agree with the words of the Rev. J. A. Ewing in the 
Resplendent Isle, viz. We rejoice in all this opposition 
for it rouses the people from apathy and indifference. It has 
led also to the spread of primary school teaching among the 
children the duty utterly neglected by the Buddhist monks 
in respect of the boys, and, of course, nearly always of the 
girls. Christianity has everything to gain ultimately by the 
change. It is in the days of strenuous struggle that the 
Gospel wins its greatest triumphs, not in the days of ease 
and compromise. 

Mr. K. J. Saunders, late of Trinity College, Kandy, on the 
last page of his Modern Buddhism in Ceylon, writes, 
Already we have to thank God for signs that Buddhists are 
awakening from the long sleep of centuries, a new enthusiasm 
for national life, and a revival of the old yearning for the 
coming one, both due, we believe, to the quickening touch of 
Christianity. The problem before the Church of Ceylon 
would seem to be so to preach Christ that He should be 
accepted as the realization of their ideal of a loving one, who 
has superseded Law by Love, and counteracted karma by 
His redemptive power, and that His kingdom shall stand for 
the Fulfilment of all those dim yearnings after national 
greatness which are struggling to find expression. 

Mr. Harold Begbie, in his introduction to In the Hand 
of the Potter, writes truly Christianity is janua vitae, 
Buddhism, janua mortis. Christianity is an ardent enthu 
siasm for existence, Buddhism is a painful yearning for 
annihilation, Christianity is a hunger and thirst after joy, 
Buddhism a chloral quest for insensibility. The Christian 
is bidden to turn away from sin that he may inherit the 
everlasting joy of eternity, the Buddhist is told to eradi 
cate all desire of any kind whatsoever lest he be born again. 


Buddha sought to discover an escape from existence, Chrisl 
opened the door of life. Buddha forbade desire, Christ 
intensified aspiration. Buddha promised anaesthesia, Christ 
promised everlasting felicity. 




AT the last Census (1911) there were 528,024 Ceylon Tamils 
and 530,983 Indian Tamils, making a total of 1,059,007, in 
the Island, or slightly more than a quarter of the whole 

The first invasion by the Tamils from South India occurred 
in 205 B.C. when an army led by Elara, a prince of the 
kingdom of Chola, now called Tanjore, landed in Ceylon, and 
marched victoriously to Anuradhapura, where he defeated 
and slew Asela, the king of the Sinhalese. 

The Ceylon Tamils or Jaffna Tamils as they are more 
popularly called, are the descendants of the old conquerors, 
who mostly came from the far north of Southern India. 
The Indian Tamils are chiefly the estate coolies, who are 
temporary migrants from the extreme south of India. The 
name cooly is derived from the word kuli which means 
daily hire or wages, therefore a cooly means a day 

Jaffna is the stronghold, or Mecca, of the Ceylon Tamils, 
whilst the Indian Tamils look upon the coast as their 
home. Jaffna has always been supplied with educational 
advantages, and this has encouraged emigration. Many of 
the Jaffnese find work in the Madras presidency, and others 
find employment in Colombo, and the far East, as accountants, 
clerks, overseers and conductors on estates. There were 
seven thousand Jaffnese in the Federated Malay States and 


Straits Settlements at the last Census. Owing to the emigra 
tion of so many men, Jaffna is the only district in Ceylon, 
with the exception of Galle, where there is a preponderance of 
females. The Tamils have of course their failings like other 
mortals, but it is always more gracious and pleasant to look 
at the bright side of things than at the dark. No one who 
knows anything of Tamils will deny the fact that as a 
race they are industrious, enterprising and clever. The 
energetic and industrious coolies are the backbone of all 
island labour. It has often been said that Tamil cooly labour 
is the best labour in the world, and certainly it is surprising 
how much work a Tamil labourer will get through in a day 
on a minimum of food. 

In days of old these immigrants invaded Ceylon as ruth 
less conquerors, now they come as valuable helpers in 
every enterprise, and are invaluable on the tea and rubber 

They are also an enterprising people, for they are to be 
found in many parts of the world, as far away as Capetown, 
the Mauritius and Jamaica, where they make money by 
their industry and thrift. This readiness to emigrate in 
search of work is a singular characteristic in an Eastern 

That they are clever is clear from the many wise sayings 
which are found in their classical works, and from the fact 
that many of them take high honors at our universities. It is 
a fact, of which the Tamils may be justly proud, that the first 
Indian to be raised to the Episcopate, the Right Rev. V. S. 
Azariah, D.D., of Dornakal, is one of their race. Another 
point of interest is their literature. The great epic poem, 
the Ramayana, was rendered into Tamil some centuries ago 
.and is most popular to-day. Among the mo^t interesting of 
their classical works is the Cural, which is considered one of 
the finest poems in the Tamil language. Here are a few 


examples of its ethical teaching culled from E. J. Robinson s 
book on Tales and Poems of South India. 

Woman. What is there not, when she excels ? 

Where she is useless nothing dwells. 
Children. The rice is all ambrosial made, 

In which their tiny hands have played. 
Love. The soul of love must live within, . 

Or bodies are but bone and skin. 
Slander. Who loves to backbite makes it clear 

His praise of virtue s insincere. 

A question which naturally arises is, Have the Tamils made 
their mark upon Christian literature in any degree ? The 
answer is in the affirmative. One of the greatest Christian 
poets that has arisen among the Tamils is Vethanayagam 
Sasthriar of Tanjore. Perhaps the most popular of his 
hymns is one that is connected with Ceylon. The story of 
how it came to be written has its humorous side, and by 
some may not be considered very complimentary to the fair 
island. The story is that on one occasion the poet and his 
choir of singers visited Jaffna, and their robes being some 
what soiled, it was thought expedient to send them to the 
wash. But, alas, they never returned, the washerman 
having set envious eyes on them. The poet and his choir 
had, therefore, to appear in their ordinary clothes. To com 
fort his own mind the poet wrote a hymn which is often sung 
by the Tamils in time of sorrow. Of course, there is no* 
mention made of the dhoby and his thievish tricks. The 
following is a translation of the hymn, which may be entitled 
Trusting at all times. 

Though sinners hate thee sore 

And would entrap thy way, 
Though trials and distress 

Befal thee day by day, 


Though all should persecute, 

And grievous cares arise, 
Though devils should appear 

Before thy trembling eyes, 

Though all men should forsake 

And battles rage around, 
Though pain and suffering come 

And poverty abound, 

Though men despise and scorn 

And ill for good requite, 
Though evil hosts combine 

To rob thee of thy right, 

My soul, be aot distressed, 

Remember Zion s Lord, 
By anxious thoughts oppressed, 

Faint not, but trust His word. 



THE Ceylon Hindus may be described as pure Animists, 
Animists and Sivites, and orthodox Sivites. The Animists 
are principally composed of all castes from the barber caste 
downwards, who are not allowed to enter a consecrated Hindu 
temple, and who are not ministered to by Brahmans. The 
orthodox Sivite worships certain gods, of whom Siva, Parvati 
his wife, Ganesha their son, Skanda and Virabhadra are the 
principal ; but these gods merely represent ideals for medita 
tion. The worship of Skanda is considered the most 
important, and Kataragama is the chief shrine in Ceylon. 
The circle of gods is considerably enlarged by the admission 
of various other gods of local, caste, or traditional significance. 
Each caste has its own protecting deity. Hinduism was 
originally nature worship, but has become polytheism of a 
gross kind. In the Hindu mythology there is a triad of 
principal gods, -Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, the first of whom 
is not now worshipped. The legends of Vishnu represent 
him, in his various incarnations, as guilty of all sorts of 
immoralities. Siva represents the reproductive force of 
nature, and in his temples an upright black stone, called a 
lingam, is worshipped. Saivas or Sivites, the followers of 
Siva, are distinguished by the three stripes of white cow 
dung ash, smeared on their foreheads and often on their 
arms and breasts. Many also have a round white mark on 
the centre of their foreheads to represent the third eye of 
Siva. In Ceylon, the most familiar names of deities, or 


perhaps as they should rather be called, demons, are Mari- 
amma (mother of death), Suppramaniam, Muniyandi, Katha- 
resan, and Narayanan. Mari-amma is the small-pox god. 
dess or demon. Muniyandi is the demon most commonly 
worshipped by the coolies, and has many little temples on 
the tea estates. Muniyandi was once a cooly himself, in 
the early coffee days. He was of the lowest caste (shoe 
maker). One day he went to cut some branches from a tree 
for his goats, when a branch fell on him and killed him. 
That very day a terrible storm broke over Hunasgiriya 
estate, near Kandy, where Muniyandi worked. T.vo men 
chanced to take shelter in a cow-shed and one of them was 
struck by lightning. Next day, his companion consulted a 
fortune teller, as to the cause of the misfortune. He was 
told that it was the spirit of Muniyandi that had taken 
revenge on his companion, and he was urged to worship 
Muniyandi with proper rites. Muniyandi has ever since 
been regarded as a worker of mischief on the estates. The 
following is the mode of worship of the coolies. The 
worshipper, accompanied by a few companions, takes some 
incense in a pot, a banana leaf, some bananas and betel nuts, 
some ashes and camphor, a coconut, a bottle of arrack and a 
live cock. Arriving at the spot sacred to Muniyandi, he 
burns the incense, arranges the bananas with the betel nuts 
on the banana leaf, covers the ashes with camphor, sets fire 
to it and cuts the coconut shell in halves, care being taken 
to cut the shell with one cut. He then places the bottle of 
arrack beside the banana leaf and kills the cock, pouring its 
blood over the rude stone that serves as an idol, as well as 
over the banana leaf and its contents. He then pulls the 
feathers off the bird, and, having cut it down the breast, 
holds it over the camphor fire for a few minutes. This done, 
he either prostrates himself before the idol or stands with his 
hands clasped over his head, and prays to Muniyandi to 


prosper him and forgive anything amiss in his worship. He 
then takes the ashes, now sacred, and having put some in his 
mouth and smeared some on his forehead, he distributes 
some among his companions, and reserves the remainder for 
his family. He then takes up the cock and the arrack, and 
after pouring a little of the latter before the idol, he cuts the 
kernel of the coconut into pieces and pours some arrack 
into the coconut shell. He then cuts the fowl into pieces 
and distributes it with the coconut and arrack among him 
self and his companions. Once more, with due reverence, he 
places a piece of coconut and betel before the idol and 
returns home. 

There are three chief religious festivals in Ceylon, (l) 
The Thai Pongal, which takes place early in the year, is a 
relic of an aboriginal nature worship of the sun. (2) The 
Tee-Vali in October commemorates the defeat of a tyrannical 
giant who had mightily oppressed both gods and men. It is 
also called the feast of lamps. (3) The Vale is connected 
with the worship of Suppramaniam, a son of Siva. In 
Colombo this festival is the occasion of a curious procession 
between two temples at opposite extremities of the town, 
and of celebrations lasting many days. 

The religion of the higher classes is a religion of fear, for 
Hinduism presents God in a terrible aspect. No one can 
visit the temples in India and Ceylon without being struck 
with the representation of God. As in all false systems of 
religion, purity is unknown in Hinduism. This is clear from 
the fact that dancing girls are attached to nearly every 
temple. These unhappy girls are called the slaves of God, 
while in reality they are the miserable slaves of men s worst 
passions. Every candid Hindu will admit that the presence 
of these women at their festivals is a blot on the escutcheon 
of their religion. And yet there is a certain amount of light 
in Hinduism, for the doctrines of expiation, sacrifice, the 


incarnation and the unity of the Godhead are all found in it. 
Bullocks, sheep and fowls are commonly offered as expiatory 
sacrifices. Hinduism teaches moreover, that the God Vishnu 
has become incarnate, under different forms, nine times, and a 
tenth incarnation is eagerly looked for by every devout 

Again, the Trinity in Unity, is not a strange doctrine to 
the Hindu, for he believes that Brahma is God, Vishnu is 
God, and Siva is God, and yet they have a saying, Let 
earth be put into the mouth of any one who denies that Vishnu 
and Siva are one. 

It has been well said that a man s religion consists of 
what he is, what he does, and what he hopes for. What 
then is the hope of the Hindu ? His highest ambition is to 
lose his own personality and be absorbed in the deity. To 
attain this he must perform many acts of self-mortification, or 
of charity, which bring with them the reward of merit, but 
before this highest stage can be reached, he must pass 
through many transmigrations. Hinduism presents but little 
hope to women. Here is a story the truth of which can be 
vouched for. A Hindu woman was seen in devout and 
earnest prayer. When she had concluded her devotions, a 
Zenana missionary asked her, For what have you been 
praying ? and the woman replied, I have been praying that 
when I die, my soul may enter into a cow. It is often said, 
Why trouble to preach the Gospel to the Hindus ? Surely, 
the Hindus, men, women and children need the Gospel, the 
Gospel of love and purity. While the Hindus are expecting 
another incarnation of their God Vishnu, it is the duty and 
privilege of the Christian Church to proclaim far and wide 
the one true incarnation which, when compared with the 
false incarnation of Vishnu, is as light compared with 



THERE is a tradition of the existence of Nestorian Christi 
anity in Ceylon, in the time of the Emperor Justinian. 
Cosmas, a Nestorian Christian, writing about A.D. 550 says, 
on the authority of one Sopater, a Greek merchant, that in 
Taprobane (which was the ancient Greek name for Ceylon) 
there existed a community of Persian Christians, tended by 
bishops, priests and deacons, and having a regular liturgy. 

St. Thomas, St. Bartholomew, and the eunuch of Candace, 
whose conversion by St. Philip is recorded in the Acts of the 
Apostles, are all alleged to have preached Christianity in the 

The historical evidence of the planting of Christianity is 
the arrival of the Portuguese in 1505, who brought with 
them Franciscan Fathers and who did their utmost to press 
Roman Catholicism upon the people. The most famous of 
their workers was St. Francis Xavier, the Apostle of the 
Indies who came over from India in 1544 on a mission to 
the Tamils in the North. He, being unable to accept the 
invitation of the people of Manaar to come and teach them 
also sent one of his clergy, through whom about seven 
hundred persons received baptism, a baptism which was 
straightway crowned by martyrdom, as these early converts 
were forthwith put to death by the Rajah of Jaffna, who was 
a worshipper of Siva. In 1650 the Dutch arrived, forcing 
the people by every means in their power to embrace the 
doctrines of the Reformed Church of Holland. Baptism had 


come to be regarded as a Government regulation, and was 
known as Christiyani karnawa, or making Christian. 

In 1795 the low country, and in 1815 the upcountry, came 
under the rule of the British, who proclaimed religious 
liberty. Emerson Tennent says, It had been declared 
honourable by the Portuguese to undergo such a ceremony, 
" making Christian," it had been rendered profitable by the 
Dutch, and after three hundred years familiarity with the 
process the natives were unable to divest themselves of the 
belief that submission to the ceremony was enjoined by 
orders from the civil government. When the pressure of 
compulsion was removed by the advent of the British power, 
thousands openly returned to their former superstitions, while 
the great majority of those who kept up their connection with 
Christianity had been so educated and trained in hypocrisy 
and false profession, that while outwardly, as a body, con 
forming to Christian worship, and anxious, as a matter of 
respectability, to obtain Christian rites, they held as their 
religious belief the doctrines of Buddhism, and practised in 
secret all its ceremonies and rites. In the first ten years of 
the British r-ule, the number of Buddhist temples in the 
Sinhalese districts had increased from between two and three 
hundred to twelve hundred. 

In 1801, out of an estimated population of about one and a 
half million, the number of those who professed the Protes 
tant form of the Christian faith was estimated to exceed 
342,000, while the Roman Catholics were considered to be 
still more numerous. In 1804, the Protestant Christians 
were estimated at 240,000, in 1810 they had dropped to 
150,000, in 1814 to 130,000 and fifty years after in 1864,, 
there were said to be 40,000 Protestants and 100,000 

The writer of the Jubilee Sketches of the C.M.S. in 
Ceylon says, About the time that the first C.M.S. 


Missionaries came to the island, the people were becoming 
aware of the fact that the outward profession of Christianity 
was no longer necessary to secure their civil rights, and were 
going back in large numbers to the open practice of Bud 
dhism which, all along, they had secretly believed. The 
gradual cessation of efforts to instruct the people, which 
preceded and followed the advent of the British rule, left the 
mass of nominal adherents, who still retained their outward 
profession of Christianity, in utter ignorance of its real 
nature, and thus confirmed in them the idea that connection 
with it, although no longer compulsory, still placed them in a 
more advantageous position and that the reception of its rites, 
(Baptism and Marriage) still secured to them the countenance 
of the ruling powers, and gave them a respectable standing, 
which, for their worldly advancement and profit, it was 
necessary to retain. 

At the commencement of the Dutch rule, and for a long 
period of its continuance, earnest and systematic efforts seem 
to have been made by that Government to bring the people of 
the island to a knowledge and profession of Christianity. 
Had those efforts been continued in full vigour, both by the 
Dutch Government and our own, Buddhism would doubtless 
have been uprooted from the land, and a nominal profession 
of Christianity established in its place. Whether or not that 
would have been more favourable to the real progress of the 
Gospel than the present state of things, is a question which 
it is difficult to decide, and concerning which diverse opinions 
will always be held. For a long period of their rule, the 
Dutch made vigorous efforts, and liberally expended funds, it 
endeavours to convert the inhabitants to the Christian faith. 
Not only did they establish schools, but they also built 
churches and employed ministers in direct missionary work 
among the adults. Yet these efforts seem to have been 
marred by their mistaken policy, in making the reception of 


baptism and the outward profession of Christianity necessary 
in order to secure to the people their civil rights and pri 
vileges, and as a passport to Government employment. The 
result of this false policy was to make the outward profession 
of Christianity almost universal, but, at the same time, it so 
opened the floodgates of hypocrisy, that the tide of false and 
insincere professors completely overwhelmed the real con 
verts, and overspread the land with a spurious Christianity 
which although imposing in extent, was utterly false and 
unsound. In the Historical Sketch of Ceylon by Dr. R. S. 
Copleston, published by the S.P.G., the writer says, When 
the English took possession in 1798, more than 300,000 
natives are said to have been registered as members of the 
Dutch Church. Of these a few were genuine Protestants, a 
large number were really Romanists, but the majority were 
merely nominally Christians, and actually Buddhists or 
Hindus. Still, it was a grand opportunity which was thus 
set before our own nation and our own Church. For, 
although much of the Christianity we found in* Ceylon was 
unsound, still the heathenism was feeble, ignorant, and dis 
credited (to a depth far below what is now the case), and 
Christian education had done much to bring the children at 
least within our reach. But unhappily the England of that 
time was little alive to such a responsibility, the opportunity 
was lost, almost all that was done was to remove the pressure 
which had kept so many people nominally Christian. With 
the gradual withdrawal of that pressure (which was not 
completely done till I860, when marriage, other than 
Christian, obtained equal registration), the great majority of 
the nominal Protestant Christians resumed the open profes 
sion of their real religion. In many cases this was Roman 
Catholicism, in more it was heathenism. Thus during nearly 
the whole century, at the beginning of which more than 
300,000 persons outwardly professed the Church of England 


as representing the Government religion, the number of 
adherents of the Church has steadily decreased. 

For some time after the British annexation, Dutch Pres- 
byterianism wa= recognized as the established Church of the 
Colony, and Mr. North afterwards Lord Guilford, the first 
British Governor, not only took active measures for restoring 
one hundred and seventy of the Dutch village schools, but 
also offered Government assistance to the clergy if they 
would itinerate through the rural districts, and so keep alive 
some knowledge of the Christian faith. 

The first Protestant missionaries to visit Ceylon from 
England were four agents of the London Missionary Society 
in 1805, but for some reason, they all soon left for India, 
except the Rev. J. D. Palm who settled down as the Pastor 
of the Dutch Church at Wolfendahl in Colombo. The 
pioneer of modern missions in Ceylon was the Rev. James 
Chater who landed in Colombo on April 16, 1812. He 
was sent out by the Baptist Missionary Society in 1806 to 
join the Serampore Mission in North India, but his landing 
was opposed by the Indian Government, so he went on to 
Burmah and commenced work there. Civil war in the 
Burmese dominions and the ill-health of his wife forced him 
to relinquish work there and try Ceylon. The Governor- 
General Sir Robert Brownrigg, and Lady Brownrigg, were 
in full sympathy with missionary effort and gave him a hearty 
welcome. The beginning of all the principal missions in 
Ceylon took place during this Governor s regime. 

The centenary of the Baptist Mission was celebrated in 
1912, and a most interesting story of the hundred years was 
written by the Rev. J. A. Ewing, under the title, The 
Resplendent Isle a hundred years witness in Ceylon. In 
it, the writer say?, The Baptist cause in Ceylon has never 
been strong numerically. There have been years of abun 
dant harvest, as well as periods of barrenness and drought, 


but every effort is made to receive only sincere adherents, 
believing that only thus will the Church ultimately become 
strong and self-supporting. The principal stations are at 
Colombo, Kandy, Matale and Ratnapura. There are twenty 
stations and out-stations, four men missionaries, nine women 
missionaries, thirty-nine native evangelists, thirty-one in 
dependent churches, 954 native members, 106 school teachers, 
forty-six schools with 3,831 scholars, and 2,787 children in the 
Sunday schools. 

The Ceylon Auxiliary (originally called the Colombo 
Auxiliary) of the British and Foreign Bible Society was 
established at Queen s House, Colombo, on August 1, 1812, 
mainly by the zealous efforts of Sir Alexander Johnston, 
Chief Justice of Ceylon, with the Governor, Sir Robert 
Brownrigg as President, and the Rev. J. Bisset, Assistant 
Colonial Chaplain, the Honorary Secretary. From the day 
of its birth the Society has pursued an unwavering course 
and stands at the centre of all organized efforts for the 
evangelization of the island. The position which it holds in 
respect to all Protestant; missions is unique, for it is the 
partner, helper and friend of all. 

The auxiliary celebrated its centenary in 1912, and in the 
Annual Report for that year, a summary of the year s work 
is given as follows : The Scriptures circulated totalled 
84,326 volumes, in twenty-five languages, against 72,783 for 
the previous year, an increase of 11,543 copies. The average 
number of Colporteurs employed was twenty and of Bible- 
women sixty-four. The receipts from sales reached no less a 
sum than Rs. 7,622 : 27 and the subscriptions and collections 
contributed locally came to Rs. 8,424 : 92. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Mission commenced its work in 
Ceylon in 1814, being the first oriental station of this 
denomination. The first party of six missionaries, two of 
whom were married, with Dr. Coke as their leader, sailed from 


England on December 30, 1813, and arrived at Point de 
Galle on June 29, 1814. Dr. Coke and Mrs. Ault, wife of one 
of the missionaries, died on the voyage. 

Evangelistic, educational and industrial work have been 
prosecuted vigorously in many parts of the island. The 
principal educational institutions are Wesley College in 
Colombo opened in 1874, Richmond College, Galle, 1876, 
Kingswood College, Kandy, 1891 and the Wellawatte, 
Industrial Home, 1890. In Wellawatte, the mission owns 
a valuable printing establishment, and in Colpetty a high 
school for girls. It has also established a mission to seamen 
and a city mission in Colombo. Other important stations 
have been established in the Jaffna peninsula and on the 
East coast. In 1916 there were twenty-seven European 
men missionaries, twenty-eight women missionaries not 
including wives, sixty catechists, 343 elementary schools 
with 927 teachers and 27,500 scholars, eleven boys high 
schools with eighty-six teachers and 1,572 scholars, four 
colleges with eighty-two teachers and 1,583 students, 6,545 
church members and 10,438 on probation. 

The American Board of Foreign Missions (Congregation- 
alist) commenced work in Jaffna in 1816, and have ever 
since confined themselves to that part of the island. The 
first missionaries had been designated for Madras, but on 
their way their vessel was wrecked off the north-west 
coast. This they accepted as an indication of the Divine 
will that they were to go no further. The medical work of 
the mission has been a great feature, and has been attended 
with much success. In 1824 the Uduvil Girls Boarding 
School was commenced, probably the earliest effort of the 
sort in a heathen land. One of the missionaries, Miss Eliza 
Agnew had charge of this school for forty-three years. 
Upwards of a thousand girls studied under her care, and of 
these more than six hundred left the school as really earnest 


Christians. Although the Mission has concentrated its effort 
on a comparatively small field, it has twenty-one outstations, 
twenty-one churches, 2,252 members, five men missionaries, 
nine women missionaries, eleven pastors, 375 teachers and 
126 schools with 11,548 scholars. The mission celebrated its 
centenary in 1916, when a history was compiled by Miss 
Helen Root entitled A Century in Ceylon. 

The Friends Foreign Mission Association commenced 
work in Matale in 1896 and in Mirigama in 1903. In 1915 
there were six missionaries, sixty-three native workers, 313 
adherents, twenty-three schools, 1,373 scholars and three 
dispensaries at which 4,800 patients were treated that year. 
The Salvation Army commenced work in Ceylon in 1883, 
the Heneratgoda Faith Mission in 1891, and there are a few 
private or free lance missions at work. 

The Ceylon branch of the Christian Literature Society for 
India, formerly called the Vernacular Education Society, was 
founded in 1858 as a memorial of the Mutiny by a union of 
all the chief missionary societies to do a work which (in 
their own words) could not be done by them separately 
except by the wasteful expenditure of much money. It is 
accordingly controlled by committees composed mainly of 
their missionaries. The Central Depot and Head Office of 
the Ceylon Branch is situated in Dam Street, Colombo. 
During the year 1915, there were sold 16,237 copies of 
General Literature, 2,015 Bibles and 11,278 Testaments and 
portions, whilst there were distributed free 240,000 four- 
page tracts and 120,000 twelve-page booklets. During the 
same year 123,500 copies of school books, 44,000 copies of 
general literature, 140,300 copies of periodicals and 240,000 
copies of tracts, having a total of 11,233,500 pages, were 
printed. Six colporteurs were employed whose sales 
produced nearly Rs. 1,500. The object of the Society is to 
disseminate among the masses pure, healthy literature of a 


Christian spirit and tone, chiefly in the vernacular. The 
Edinburgh Conference of 1910 reported that Christianity 
has been most intelligent, influential and progressive when 
mental activity has been most carefully nourished and 
stimulated by Christian literature, and an Indian missionary 
says, After an experience of fifty years among the millions of 
these vast regions, I have no hesitation in saying that I 
regard this agency as se % cond only to preaching and teaching 
among all the forms of labour employed in the missionary 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel began work 
in Ceylon in 1840, and in November of that year the Rev. 
C. Mooyart became its first missionary, being stationed in 
Colombo. In 1842 the Rev. H. Von Dadelszen was appointed 
to Nuwara Eliya and the Rev. S. D. J. Ondaatjie to Kalutara. 
In the following year a District Committee was formed at 
Colombo. The S.P.G. began by aiding existing churches, 
not by going into entirely new fields. In some cases, 
a Sinhalese or a Tamil clergyman, who was already employed 
as a chaplain under Government to minister to Christians of 
his own race, would be assisted by a grant from the S.P.G. 
and placed upon its lists of missionaries, that he might in 
this capacity be encouraged and enabled to extend his work 
to the heathen, and such missionary chaplains employed 
catechists, and opened schools. In other instances, where 
Government could be persuaded to make an allowance for a 
Catechist, the S.P.G. grant, in addition to the Government 
salary, made it possible to maintain a priest. 

The S.P.G- has been a promoter and helper of missionary 
work rather than a proprietor of distinct missions. In one or 
two districts it has independent and valuable work, but more 
often the S.P.G. has worked in clo^e conjunction with 
Government chaplains or diocesan clergy, rather than by a 
staff and missions of its own. In 1851 with the assistance of 


the S.P.G., St. Thomas College was opened and has received 
continuous aid. The Society has been gradually reducing 
its grant to Ceylon which now only amounts to ^500. 
It was through the help of the Society that the Bishopric 
Endowment Fund was originated and completed in 1898. 

The statistics for the year ended June 1916 were 
Christians 2,906, commmunicants 816, catechumens 44, 
baptized during the year 94, schools 28, teachers 148, 
pupils 2,792. 

The preponderance of Roman Catholicism in the island 
is very marked. In seven out of the nine provinces more 
than seventy per cent of the Christians are Roman Catholics. 
There has been great activity not only in multiplying digni 
taries, but in promoting higher education. There are three 
principal Roman Catholic Missions, the Oblates of Mary 
Immaculate, the Oblates of St. Benedict and the Society of 
Jesus. The Archbishopric is of Colombo, with Bishops 
of Colombo, Jaffna, Kandy, Galle and Trincomalee, whilst 
there are 173 foreign priests, 67 native, priests, 26 foreign 
lay brothers, 64 native lay brothers, 186 foreign sisters and 
324 native sisters. Among the congregations of women at 
work are the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, the Franciscan 
Missionaries of Mary, and the Sisters of the Holy Family. 
There are several native congregations including the 
St. Joseph s Society of lay brothers and the Societies of 
St. Peter and of St. Francis Xavier for women. The edu 
cational institutions include St. Joseph s College in Colombo, 
St. Patrick s College in Jaffna, St. Aloysius College in Galle 
and the Papal General Seminary at Ampitiya near Kandy. 
The last named institution was founded by Pope Leo XIII 
in 1893 to provide a specially thorough theological education, 
of which all Indian dioceses might avail themselves. 

The Church of England in Ceylon, according to the 
Government Census of 1911, numbered 41,095 members. 


Ceylon, which had been added to the See of Calcutta in 
1817, and to that of Madras in 1835 was erected into a 
separate Bishopric in 1845. The first Bishop of Calcutta, 
Dr. F. T. Middleton, was consecrated privately in Lambeth 
Palace on May 8, 1814, for fear of offending the natives 
and the Dean of Winchester s sermon on the occasion was 
not allowed to be printed. His first episcopal visitation to 
Ceylon was in October ^1816, when he arrived by the H.M. 
Cruiser, Aurora. His next visit was in 1821, when he 
consecrated St. Peter s Church in Colombo on May 22. 
Bishop Heber visited the island in 1825, followed by Bishop 
Turner in 1831, and Bishop Wilson in January 1843. The 
first Bishop of Colombo, Dr. James Chapman, was consecra 
ted in Lambeth Palace Chapel on May 4, 1845, and landed 
in Colombo on All Saints Day of that year, and after sixteen 
years of devoted service resigned in 1861. The C.M.S. 
Annual Report of 1845 said, The Committee anticipate 
much benefit to the Ceylon Mission from his spiritual direc 
tion and paternal superintendence over the Church in this 
interesting island. 

The second Bishop of Colombo, was Dr. Piers C. Claugh- 
ton, who was translated from St. Helena in 1862, and after 
eight years work resigned in 1870. 

The third Bishop, Dr. Hugh W. Jermyn, was consecrated 
in 1871, but was forced by ill-health to resign in 1874, and 
afterwards was appointed Bishop of Brechin and Primus of 

In 1875, his successor, Dr. Reginald Stephen Copleston, 
was consecrated and worked assiduously for twenty-seven 
years, until his translation in 1902 to Calcutta. In 1892, 
was published his standard work on Buddhism, primitive 
and present, in Magadha and in Ceylon. Dr. Copleston, 
owing to ill-health, resigned the See of Calcutta in 


In 1903, his brother, Dr. Ernest A. Copleston who had 
been working in Ceylon for some years, was consecrated fifth 
Bishop of Colombo, in the Cathedral Church of Calcutta. 

In 1881, the connection of the British Government with 
the endowment of religion by ecclesiastical votes from the 
general revenue to the Bishop and a number of Episcopal 
and Presbyterian Chaplains, was discontinued by ordinance, 
provision being made for existing incumbents. The Bishop 
thereupon summoned a Church assembly, comprising all the 
clergy in priests orders, and lay delegates chosen by the 
various congregations, who elected a Committee to consider 
the future constitution of the Church. This Committee sat 
for nearly five years and ultimately drafted a complete con 
stitution for the Church of England in Ceylon. On 
July 6, 1886, the draft constitution was submitted to the 
Church assembly and approved, and recommended to the 
acceptance of the permanent Synod of the disestablished 
Church, which had already been elected by anticipation. 
The Synod met on the following day for the first time and 
solemnly accepted the constitution in the name of the whole 
Church in Ceylon. The proceedings closed with a joyful 
Te Deum. 

The duty of self-organization and self-support which was 
thus forced upon the Church by the withdrawal of State aid, 
has served to quicken and to create corporate feeling, as well 
as the sense of unity, and has brought into it new life and 

Under rule 8 of Chapter VII on the Revision and For 
mation of Parishes and Districts of The Constitution and 
the Fundamental Provisions, and Regulations Non-Funda 
mental, of the Synod of the Church of England in Ceylon it 
says nor shall any of the foregoing rules be so interpreted 
or understood as to hinder or prevent either the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign parts or the Church 


Missionary Society, or any other directly Mission Organiza 
tion of the Church of England from carrying on as heretofore 
with the sanction and license of the Bishop, direct Evange 
listic Missionary work amongst such heathen and Moham 
medan populations, and in Chapter VIII, on Patronage, 
Rule V, Nothing contained in this chapter shall interfere 
with the rights of the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel or of the Church Missionary Society or of any other 
Patrons, so long as they desire to exercise their Patronage 
independently of Synod. 

At the close of the year 1916 the number of clergy of the 
Church of England in Ceylon holding the Bishop s License 
was 108, viz. thirty-eight Europeans, five Burghers, twenty- 
nine Tamils and thirty-six Sinhalese. 

The Church Missionary Society commenced work in 1818, 
and the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society in 
1889, particulars of which will be found in Chapter VIII and 
the following pages of this volume. 

in the Census of 1911 the population enumerated was 
4,110,367. Of these 409,168 entered themselves as Christians, 
as follows i 

Roman Catholics ... .-.. 330,300 

Church of England ... ... 41,095 

Presbyterians ... ... 3,546 

Wesleyans ... ... 17,323 

Baptists ... ... ... 3,306 

Congregationalism ... ... 2,978 

Salvationists ... ... 1,042 

Friends ... ... ... 120 

Lutherans ... ... ... 142 

Others ... ... ... 316 

According to the Census of 1881 the Christians numbered 
267,977, in 1891 they numbered 302,127, and in 1901 they 


numbered 349,239. The strength of the four principal 
religions in 1911 was, Buddhists, 60 per cent ; Hindus, 23 per 
cent ; Christians, 10 per cent ; and Mohammedans, 7 per cent, 
of the population. 

One result of the World Missionary Conference held in 
Edinburgh in June 1910, was the appointment of a Continua 
tion Committee of some forty leaders of the missionary forces. 
This Committee requested its Chairman, Dr. John R. Mott, 
to visit the mission fields, acquainting missionaries and native 
leaders with the work and plans of the Committee and assist 
ing the work in such other ways as might be determined. 

Dr. Mott accordingly spent from October 1912 to the 
following May in a tour through the principal mission fields 
of Asia, and held a series of twenty-one conferences. Never 
before have the great questions involved in the establishment 
of Christ s kingdom upon earth been discussed by so many 
recognized leaders of the Christian forces throughout the non- 
Christian world, nor has there ever been such an expression 
of united judgment and desire on the part of workers of the 
various Christian bodies. 

Ceylon was the first centre visited and a Conference was 
held in Colombo, on November 11-13, 1912, at which sixty- 
six delegates chosen by the various religious bodies (except 
ing Roman Catholics) were present under the chairmanship 
of Dr. Mott. The following were chosen to represent the 
C.M.S., the Revs. G. S. Amarasekara, J. W. Balding, J. V. 
Daniel, A. E. Dibben, A. G. Eraser, W. E. Rowlands, W. G. 
Shorten, S. S. Somasundaram, Messrs. N. _P. Campbell, N. 
Selvadurai, Mrs. A. G- Eraser and Miss L. E. Nixon. 
The following is a summary of the findings 
Conference, in regard to Ceylon. 

Missionary work is located in the most populous and me 
accessible areas and is reaching the Sinhalese and Tamil 
speakin* people. Very little, except through our schools, is 


being done for the Mohammedan men. The Parsis and the 
forest Veddahs are neglected. More direct evangelistic work 
among non-Christians needs to be done. A serious attempt 
should be made towards a better understanding of the religious 
standpoint of the people. Preachers and teachers should lay 
special stress by precept and example upon the truth that the 
task of the evangelization of this country is the task of every 
member of the Church. The Sinhalese and Tamil Churches 
connected with several missions support their own Ministry 
entirely in many places, partially in others. The community 
is strong enough in religious experience and intellectual 
attainment to supply an ordained ministry for its Church life, 
and is doing so. The progress made in self-government has 
resulted in greater generosity and in a deeper appreciation of 
independence, responsibility and power. The support of 
evangelistic efforts through indigenous Missionary Societies 
has been steadily increasing. Evangelistic effort in the 
immediate neighbourhood of independent churches and con 
gregations is wholly inadequate. Leaders should be sought 
out and trained and every effort should be made to provide 
for them a ladder of responsibility, and to give freedom of 
initiative to such persons when discovered or trained. Mission 
schools should be concerned primarily in educating the 
Christian and social conscience of their pupils. Ceylonese 
workers should be accorded a powerful place in Church con 
ferences aud a full share in its consultations. Greater efforts 
should be made through the children attending schools to 
reach and influence their homes. As singular opportunities 
exist for the calling out and development of the missionary 
spirit in the various Christian schools and colleges, it would 
give encouragement to the missionary cause if the training of 
Ceylonese missionaries were placed in the forefront of the 
objects for which such colleges exist and if special scholar 
ships were founded to help those who wish to qualify for 


missionary service. Greater attention should be given to the 
production and dissemination of Christian literature adapted 
to the needs of Ceylon Christians and non-Christians. There 
is a lack of leaders from among the Ceylonese women and a 
paucity of European women workers. Suitable Ceylonese 
women missionaries should receive exactly the same official 
and social status as the foreign workers. Simple inexpensive 
Anglo-vernacular Girls Boarding Schools should be multi 
plied. The non-realization of many women and girls of the 
congregations of their duty to undertake voluntary church 
work is a defect. Simple medical work among women and 
children in backward districts is to be desired. 



ABILITY to read and writa at least one s own language, 
though not indispensable to the planting and development of 
Christianity, must be acknowledged to be a very importan 
aid to the work of the Christian Missionary. Christianity 
does not invite ignorance as an ally, but welcomes enlighten 
ment as its co-adjutor. The total numbers able to read and 
write one language in all Ceylon in the last four decades 

Census of 1881 ... ... 404,441 

1891 ... ... 603,047 

1901 ... ... 773,196 

1911 ... ... 1,082,828 

The proportions of the above (in which males and females 
are included) are : 

1881 1891 1901 1911 

Percentage of Males ...24-6 30-0 34-70 40 4 
Females ... 2-5 4-3 6-92 10-6 

The total number of literates at the last Census was 
878,766 males and 204,062 females. The total native 
population literate in English was 70,679. Of these 57,881 
were males and 12,798 females, and of these 1,785 Sinhalese 
and 241 Ceylon Tamils, a total of 2 ; 026 could not read and 
write trfeir own language. 

During the Dutch occupation of the Colony, schools were 
established and attendance was made compulsory. The 
teaching was largely religious and the girls had to show that 


they understood the catechism and creed before they could be 
married. In the Instructions from the Governor-General of 
India to the Governor of Ceylon in 1656, it is laid down 
that the boys and girls should be made to attend schools, 
and be there received into Christianity. The observance of 
this point will cause some difficulty, because the natives 
think a great deal of their daughters, and the parents will not 
consent to their going to school after their eighth year. They 
may, perhaps, receive a little more instruction on the visits of 
the clergyman. 

That the education imparted was not of a very advanced 
type may be gathered from a quotation from Eschelskroon in 
his Description of Ceylon, 1782. The schoolmasters are 
either chaplain?, that come with the ships from Europe, or 
more usually still, broken mechanics, such as bakers, shoe 
makers, glaziers, etc., who have no more book learning than 
just to make a shift to sing the Psalms of David, and at the 
same time perhaps can say the Heidelberg catechism by 
heart, together-jwith a few passages out of the Bible, and are 
able to read a sermon from some author, or else they are some 
wretched natives, that can scarce make a shift to read Dutch 
intelligibly, much less can they write a good hand, and in 
arithmetic are still more deficient. When the British took 
possession in 1796, the question of education was neglected 
for some years, but with the advent of the missionary bodies, 
schools were established in various parts of the Island. 

A School Commission was instituted by the Government 
on May 19, 1834, and the first Government Educational 
Institution, called the Colombo Academy, now known as the 
Royal College, was started on October 26, 1836. In January 
1868, Sir Hercules Robinson s Education Scheme passed the 
Legislature, abolishing the School Commission, appointing a 
Director of Education, and regulating Grants-in-aid to all 
denominations and private schools in return for secular 


results only. This gave a great impetus to education, and 
the total number of scholars under the cognizance of the 
Department of Public Instruction has risen from 44,192 in 
769 schools in 1873, to 384,533 in 4,303 schools in 1915. 
Of these 118,381 were girls, about 39 per cent of the girls of 
school-going age. 

The total expenditure on Education from the General 
Revenue in 1879 was Rs. 445,228 and for the year 1915 it 
amounted to Rs. 2,154,209. 

The Cambridge Local Examinations were introduced in 
1880, and for the first examination that year, were presented 
twenty-one boys and no girls; in 1915 there were 2,151 
boys and 236 girls. 

There are thirty-nine industrial schools, and carpentry 
among boys, and lace- making among girls, are the most 
popular industries. 

The following extracts from Mr. E. B. Denham s Ceylon 
at the Census of 1911 are interesting. Under Instruction 
he s-ays, 67 per cent of the persons employed in this 
profession are males and 33 per cent females. In all 
it supports 15,500 persons. The number of persons de- 
perding on " Instruction " has increased by 5,000 during the 
decade. There were 4,690 school masters and teachers, 
as compared with 3,126 in 1901, and 2,269 school mistresses 
and teachers, as compared with 1,507 in 1901. Of the 
Kandyan Sinhalese, only 912 depend upon educational 
employment, as compared with 7,176 Low-country Sinha 
lese and 5,001 Ceylon Tamils. 

Again Mr. Denham writes under Education , The 
improved standard of comfort throughout the country, the 
growth of wealth, accompanied by considerable changes in 
manners and customs, have ail produced an enormous 
demand which may almost be described as a passion for 
education. The older generation regard education as an 


investment for their children, which will enable them to take 
up positions to which their newly acquired wealth entitles 
them. The small landowner and cultivator who has pros 
pered believes that education will make a clerk of his son or 
fit him for a learned profession, that the latter will then hold 
a better position in the world than his father, and that 
consequently the fortunes, and, what appeals to him equally 
strongly, the status of the family will be assured. The 
younger generations seek escape from rural life, from manual 
toil, from work which they begin to think degrading, in an 
education which will enable them to pass examinations, 
which will lead to posts in offices in the towns, and so to 
appointments which entitle the holders to the respect of the 
class from which they believe they have emancipated them 

The Church Missionary Society, together with the other 
Christian Missions, has from the beginning been in the 
forefront in the matter of education, and has established 
some of the best schools in the Island. Consequently the 
Christians show the highest proportions of literates amongst 
all religions. 

In 1911, the percentage of literates of each religion and 
sex was as follows : 

Males. Females. 

Christians ... ... 60-3 38-8 

Buddhists ... ... 41-8 9-1 

Hindus ... ... 29-6 4-0 

Mohammedans ... 36 2 3-2 

During the last thirty years the Buddhists have taken a 
keener interest in education, and hundreds of vernacular 
schools have been opened in the villages for boys as well as 
for girls, and English schools in the towns. The Hindus are 
also now taking their share in the education of the young. 


It is a cause for thankfulness that the education of girls 
has not been neglected, for the value of female education is 
so great that its importance cannot be exaggerated. 

Sinhalese women have never been deliberately excluded 
from the acquisition of knowledge, and the old proverb of 
the Tamils, Though a woman may wear cloth upon cloth 
and is able to dance like a celestial, she is not to be desired if 
she can press a style on a palm leaf does not hold to-day. 

Mr. John Ferguson in his review of Christian Missions 
in Ceylon says Education has made great strides . . . 
Perhaps the most unfailing and successful branch of mission 
work has been found in the boarding schools for girls as 
well as for boys, but especially for the girls. If a Christian 
philanthropist were to stipulate that his wealth had to be 
devoted solely to that branch of mission operations which had 
been found to give the most uniformly satisfactory results, 
we fancy the vote of the missionaries, as of Christian laymen 
in Ceylon, would go by a large majority in favour of Girls 
Boarding Schools. 



ON February 16, 1796, Colombo was surrendered by the 
Dutch, with scarcely a blow being struck in its defence, and 
so the low country became a possession of the British crown. 

Three years after, on Friday, April 12, 1799, in a first 
floor room in the Castle and Falcon Hotel in Aldersgate 
Street, London, when sixteen clergymen and nine laymen 
were present, was founded The Church Missionary Society 
for Africa and the East. In each year s annual report of the 
Society issued since, we are reminded that Ceylon was one 
of the first fields to which the fathers of the C.M.S. turned 
their eyes. 

The peculiar circumstances of Ceylon, its claims on British 
Christians, and the facilities it afforded for the prosecution of 
missionary work, led the Committee of the Society to deter 
mine on making an effort in its behalf as soon as they should 
find themselves in a position to do so. It was, however, not 
the heathenism of Ceylon, but its Christianity which led them 
to contemplate this step. In the first report of the Society s 
proceedings, published in 1801, we read, In the island of 
Ceylon, it appears that there are not less than 145 Christian 
schools ; of these fifty-four are within the district of Colombo, 
and in that one district alone there are not less than 90,000 
native Christians. The Christian religion having been thus 
successfully planted by the Portuguese and then further 
cultivated by the Dutch, it is hoped that it will not be suffered 
to decline now that the Island is subject to the Crown of 
England. This important subject has not escaped the 
attention of the Committee. 


With no actual experience of the real state of matters to 
guide them, the Island appeared to them as a field of labour 
white already to the harvest. A clergyman stationed in 
Ceylon in a letter dated December, 1801, to one of the 
Governors of the Society, writes, From the time the English 
took possession, until the arrival of Mr. North, the Governor, 
the Christian schools and education of the inhabitants were 
entirely neglected, many Churches had fallen into ruins, and 
thousands of those who called themselves Christians had 
returned to their ancient paganism and idolatry. By the last 
returns in the Ecclesiastical department, there were nearly 
170 schools and upwards of 342,000 Christians. 

Until 1813, the C.M.S. was unable, first from the want of 
funds, and then from the want of men, to take any direct 
step towards the opening of a mission. They, however, cor 
responded with men of influence in the island who took an 
interest in Christian work, in order to obtain, information for 
future use, and further made an offer to Sir Alexander 
Johnston, the Chief Justice, to educate for the ministry any 
two native young men that he might select and send to 
England. Sir A. Johnson also caused the first number of 
the Missionary Register (January, 1813) to be translated 
into Sinhalese, Tamil and Portuguese, for circulation in the 
island. He also engaged two men to translate Bishop 
Porteus work on the Evidences of Christianity into 

Two men, Thomas Norton and William Greenwood, had 
been accepted for training by the C.M.S. in 1809. Norton 
was a married shoemaker who had studied Greek, and Green 
wood was a blanket manufacturer. After training, the 
Bishops declined to ordain men for work outside their own 
dioceses. Eventually they were ordained to curacies in 
England, and in 1814 appointed to Ceylon, being the first 
clergymen of the Church of England to go to Asia definitely 


as missionaries, the first two English men trained by the 
C.M.S. and the first two English clergymen sent out by the 

In the instructions delivered to them at the valedictory 
dismissal on January 7, 1814, the following passage occurs, 
You, Mr. Norton, and Mr. Greenwood, are destined to 
labour in the populous island of Ceylon. We feel great 
interest in the increase of true religion there, and in this 
desire our personal intercourse with Sir A. Johnston, has 
greatly confirmed the Committee. The war into which the 
ambitious violence of these days unwillingly forced Great 
Britain and Holland is now happily closed. This protracted 
war disabled the Dutch from maintaining in Ceylon that suc 
cession of clergymen which was necessary for the support of 
religion. We send you to lend your aid to the religious 
concerns of this important portion of the British colonial 
possessions, and in the persons in authority there, you will 
find willing protectors. The two missionaries embarked in 
the same vessel for Ceylon, but she was obliged to put back 
for repair^, and before finally sailing, which was three weeks 
before the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, the Committee altered 
their destination to India. 

In the autumn of 1817, the Comrtrittee appointed the Revs. 
Samuel Lambrick, Benjamin Ward, Robert Mayor and 
Joseph Knight, all of whom had been ordained by Bishop 
Ryder of Gloucester, as missionaries to Ceylon, and in their 
instructions we read, In few places are there more favour 
able opportunities of reviving and extending Christian truth. 
For want of religious instruction, numbers are fast degene 
rating into heathenism.. The Chief Justice has prepared the 
way for our exertions, by diffusing information respecting the 
designs of our Society. There are two objects which you 
will ever keep in mind as forming the great design of your 
labours, the revival of true Christianity in the hearts of the 


natives who at present only nominally profess it, and the 
conversion of the heathen. 

On October 28, 1817, a valedictory dismissal under the 
presidency of Lord Gambier was held at the Freemason s 
Hall in the City of London, and a sermon was previously 
preached by the Rev. J. W. Cunningham, Vicar of Harrow, 
at St. Bride s Church, from Psalm Ivi. 3, Though I am 
sometime afraid, yet put I my trust in Thee. 

The Rev. Charles Simon also gave an address to the de 
parting missionaries. On December 20, 1817, the four men, 
with Mrs. Mayor and Mrs. Ward, embarked at Gravesend 
on board the Vittoria. They arrived at Teneriffe on 
January 5, leaving again on the 23rd, not reaching the Cape 
till April 14, in consequence of calms and contrary winds, 
arriving in Madras on June 17, and at Point de Galle on 
June 29, 1818, having taken two hundred days to accomplish 
the voyage. On disembarking at Galle, the missionaries 
were received with great kindness by the Rev. J. M. S. 
Glenie, the Chaplain at the station. 

In the original plan of the Parent Committee it &ad been 
arranged that Mr. Lambrick should be stationed at Colombo, 
Mr. and Mrs. Mayor at Galle, Mr. Knight at Jaffna and Mr. 
and Mrs. Ward at Trincomalie, but on arrival representations 
were made to them which led to a change in the location of 
two of their number. 

Messrs. Lambrick and Ward were stationed at Kandy and 
Calpentyn respectively, and Messrs. Mayor and Knight pro 
ceeded to the stations to which they were originally designated. 
After a few months Mr. Mayor thought it advisable to leave 
the town of Galle, so in 1819 moved twelve miles inland to 
Baddegama, and Mr. Ward finding Calpentyn unsuitable for 
a Mission station, removed to Jaffna and afterwards to 

In 1822 the Cotta Mission was begun, Colombo was occu- 







pied in 1850 and the Kandyan Itinerancy and Tamil Cooly 
Mission were founded in 1853 and 1855 respectively. In 
1827 the Cotta Institution to train workers was founded, 
but now for some years it has been carried on as an English 

Early in 1850, Sir J. Emerson Tennent, Secretary to the 
Ceylon Government, and afterwards well known for his ela 
borate book on Ceylon, wrote a letter to Lord Chichester, the 
President of the C.M.S., in which he said, The mission of 
Christianity is not doomed to repulse, as has been improperly 
asserted. Its ministers are successfully carrying forward 
the work of enlightenment and civilization with an effect so 
remarkable, and a result so convincing, in Ceylon, as to afford 
every assurance of a wide and permanent triumph for the 

An important high class boys school was begun at Chun- 
dicully in 1851, which is now kaown as St. John s College, 
and the Copay Training Institution was opened in 1853. In 
1857 the Kandy Collegiate School for boys was opened by 
the Rev. J. Ireland Jones and was closed after six years, but 
in 1872 was reopened under the name of Trinity College by 
the Rev. R. Collins. 

Several boarding schools for girls were opened, the 
first at Nellore in 1842, another for Tamils at Borella by 
Mrs. W. E. Rowlands in 1869, the Cotta school in 1870 by 
Mrs. R. T. Dowbiggin, another at Baddegama in 1888 by 
Mrs. J. W. Balding, and one at Kegalle by Mrs. G. Liesching 
in 1895. Miss H. P. Phillips opened an industrial school at 
Dodanduwa in 1893 and a Girls English High School was 
commenced at Chundicully in 18S6 by Mrs. J. Carter. 

The C.M.S. Ladies College was opened in Colombo in 
1900 by Miss L. E. Nixon and Miss E. Whitney, in 1903 a 
Girls English School at Cotta by Mrs. J. W. Balding, and 
in 1904 a vernacular training school for Sinhalese women 


teachers was opened in Colombo which after a few months 
was transferred to Cotta and in 1916 to the newly instituted 
Training Colony at Peradeniya. 

The Jubilee of the mission in Ceylon was celebrated in 
1868 and an appeal was issued by the Rev. W. Oakley, the 
Secretary of the Mission in May 1868, for contributions to 
a Jubilee Fund, as a token that the utility of past efforts is 
recognized, and as a pledge of the desire that the work shall go 
still on. The writer of the appeal also says, The amount of 
success has not perhaps been all that was at first anticipated, 
the number of satisfactory converts may have not been as 
great as in some more favoured missions, still the efforts 
made have not been without fruit, the prayers offered have 
not been without answer, and there is good reason to hope 
that in the midst of the great and countless multitude of the 
redeemed which shall hereafter surround God s throne, 
many shall appear whose first knowledge of the truth as it 
is in Jesus was conveyed to them by the workers of the 
C.M.S. Meetings were held in various centres to celebrate 
the Jubilee, the chief one being held at the girls school near 
the Kachcheri, in Colombo, on Friday evening, July 17, 1868. 
This was presided over by the Bishop, and the collection at 
the close amounted to 18. 

The Rev. W. Oakley moved the first resolution, That this 
meeting feels bound to render hearty thanks to God for His 
goodness in having enabled the C.M.S. to continue uninter 
ruptedly, its labours in Ceylon for a period of fifty years, and 
for the measure of success by which those labours have been 
crowned. This was seconded by Dr. Willisford. Mr. R. V. 
Dunlop moved the second resolution which was seconded 
by the Hon ble Colonel Layard, That this meeting desires 
to express its confidence in the soundness of those principles 
by which the C.M.S. has, from its commencement been 
guided, and to which it still firmly adheres. 



The Hon ble R. F. Morgan moved the third resolution 
which was seconded by the Rev. J. Ireland Jones, That this 
meeting, while acknowledging with thankfulness the impor 
tant results which have by God s blessing, followed from the 
Church Missionary Society s labours in Ceylon, feels deeply 
the urgent need which still exists for continued and extended 
efforts, and recognizes the duty of promoting by every 
possible means, the great ends which the Society has in 


Also to commemorate the Jubilee, the Rev J. Ireland Jones 
wrote the small book already mentioned, entitled Jubilee 
Sketches. In this review of the fifty years work, the writer 
says, A more arduous task, a more trying field of labour, it 
would be difficult to imagine. It is a matter well understood 
by planters, that while the primeval forest land, if cleared 
and planted, will soon yield them a rich return, the chenas 
the lower ranges, previously exhausted by native cultivatic 
though far more easy of access, and requiring far less outlay 
at the beginning, will too often mock their hopes, and can o 
be made^ to yield a return at last, by a long and expeni 
mode of cultivation. This fact has its counterpart in spir 


In 1875 Dr Reginald Stephen Copleston was 
fourth Bishop of Colombo, and arrived in the island early t 
following year. Soon after the Bishop s arrival, 
difficulties arose, owing to his seeking a more direcl 
than his predecessors had had, over the C.M.S. work. 
Society conceived that its just liberties as an independent 
organization, and those of its missionaries as clergymen o 
diocese, were at stake, and the controversy was render, 
more painful by theological differences. In 1880, the que tio 
at issue were submitted to the Archbishop of Canterbury 
(Dr. Tait), the Archbishop of York (Dr. Thomso 
Bishops of London (Dr. Jackson), Durham (Dr. Lightfoot), 


and Winchester (Dr. Harold Browne), and the result was 
an Opinion from these prelates which was accepted on 
both sides as satisfactory and under which the mission has 
been carried on ever since with little difficulty. 

In 1881 the Bishop confirmed 520 candidates, including 
174 Tamil coolies, in C.M.S. districts. In another tour in 
1885, he confirmed eighty-three candidates, and wrote to a 
missionary magazine, The Net, I have lately seen much 
that was encouraging among the immigrant Tamil coolies and 
among the native Sinhalese respectively. The former set a 
very good example by the zeal and liberality with which they 
support their own Churches. In one planting district, while 
the English masters were waiting, and wishing, and consider 
ing how they should get a Church, their Tamil labourers 
built one. 

The Bishop was transferred to Calcutta in 1902, a gain to 
India but a corresponding loss to Ceylon. Whilst it is im 
possible to forget that the early years of his episcopate were 
a period of estrangement and conflict between the Bishop and 
the missionaries and the Committee, the alienation had long 
since disappeared and for many years the record had been 
one of unbroken and cordial co-operation. Differences in 
deed doubtless remained, theological, ecclesiastical and prac 
tical, but these have not prevented the discovery of a common 
ground on which all could work together for the glory of 
their common Lord. Clergy and laity alike, European and 
Ceylonese, learnt to revere the Bishop as a true Father 
in God. 

In 1884 some questions arose upon which the missionaries 
and lay friends differed from the Home Committee, and the 
Revs. J. Barton and C. C. Fenn were sent out to adjust 
matters, which they accomplished to general satisfaction, 
and no further difficulty has occurred. In 1887 and again in 
1889, Special Missions were conducted by the Rev. G. C. 





Grubb, assisted on the first occasion by Colonel Oldham^ 
Much blessing was vouchsafed, many English planters were 
brought to Christ, and the Christian men among them stirred 
up to greater zeal, and the effect of this, both upon the 
Ceylonese Christians and upon the evangelistic work was 
very marked. It was afterwards marred by the antago 
nistic influence of the Exclusive Brethren. The Revs. 
E. N. Thwaites and Martin J. Hall also conducted special 
missions in 1894 and the Rev. E. Bacheler Russell in 1896 
at Christ Church, Galle Face. Mrs. J. W. Balding, writing 
to the localized Gleaner in 1887 with reference to the 
missioners in the Baddegama District, says, Blessed have 
been the messages, straight from the loving Saviour, through 
His instruments, messages of earnest, tender appeal for a 
full surrender of the heart to God, and perfect consecration 
to Him and to His service. The mission came, bringing to 
many a weary heart, rest, joy, and peace, and has gone, 
leaving behind a greater hungering and thirsting after 
righteousness. Some of our Christians have been stirred up 
to more active work. Every day there were good attend 
ances. Backsliders were present whose faces had not been 
seen for many years. Buddhists also came. It was beauti 
ful to note the earnest upturned faces, and the rapt attention 
with which the word was listened to, the word of God full of 
pardon, love and peace, melting to tears some of the hearers, 
imparting to others unspeakable joy. The Rev. A. E. 
Dibben writing of the 1894 mission said, Europeans, 
Sinhalese and Tamils have been so stirred up that several 
have given in their names as wishing to engage directly in 
the Lord s work as He may lead. 

In 1886 the Rev. F. E. Wigram, the Honorary Clerical 
Secretary of the C.M.S. during his tour of the missions in 
the East, accompanied by his son, visited Ceylon. 

In 1869 a system of Native Church organization was 


brought into operation, with District Councils to manage all 
financial business, and a Central Council as a deliberative 
body. Large grants-in-aid which were received yearly from 
the Home Society were reduced by one-twentieth annually. 
These grants have now run out, and in 1911 the old system 
was superseded by the launching of a Scheme for the organi 
zation of Churches in Ceylon in connection with the C.M.S. 
More responsibility is now thrown upon the Ceylonese clergy 
as they take independent charge of their pastorates. Several 
clergy have been accorded this position, and some have taken 
over the management of the schools and assumed responsibi 
lity for the evangelistic work in their respective areas. This 
new scheme has had the effect of developing the spirit of 
devotion and self-sacrifice, as well as of calling forth more 
prominently the co-operation of the laymen of the Church. 
Some of these independent pastorates also receive annual 
grants from the Synod of the diocese. In 1892 two tea- 
planters, Messrs. Ernest J. Carus Wilson and Sydney 
M. Simmons left their estates and commenced a Band of 
Associated Lay Evangelists in connection with the Sinhalese 
branch of the mission. Work was carried on in the villages 
with the assistance of catechists. The work was helped by 
the exhibition of large coloured Scripture pictures, hymn 
singing, lantern talks under the palm trees and work amongst 
children. The band was never really given a fair trial of 
steady and continued labour, as when any urgent vacancy 
occurred in the stations, one of the lay evangelists was at 
once sent to fill the gap. The evangelists went to England 
in 1896 and returned the following year. Mr. Simmons who 
had been ordained was appointed to take charge of Badde- 
gama, and in 1899, Mr. Carus Wilson who had been engaged 
in evangelistic work at Bentota, was obliged to return to 

In 1899 the Ceylon Mission commemorated the Centenary 


of the Parent Society. On April 12 a public meeting was 

held in the school room at Galle Face Church, Colombo. 

The Bishop presided and the three speakers, all of whom 

have since passed to their rest, were the Revs. E. T. Higgens, 

J. D. Simmons and Sir W. W. Mitchell. Special services 

and meetings were held at all the stations. At Cotta, 

Rs. 315 was contributed as a birthday offering, at Baddegama 

Rs. 500 as a centenary thankoffering and at Holy Trinity 

Church, Kandy, RP. 500 was given to meet the monthly 

liabilities of the pastorate. At Nellore a breakfast was given 

to five hundred persons. At Chundicully there was a social 

gathering and at 5.20 p.m. corresponding to noon in London, 

the Union Jack was unfurled, and the hymn Jesus shall 

reign was sung. At Pallai, after the thanksgiving service, 

Sir W. Twynam entertained one hundred and fifty Christians 

at breakfast. 

The C.M.S. Conference, which until quite recently met 
twice a year, now meets once a year in the month of 
August, with the Bishop as Chairman. All the European 
missionaries, four Ceylonese clergy and two Ceylonese 
laymen are members. The women missionaries have also a 
Conference which meets annually. The Conferences elect 
Standing Committees, Examination, Visiting and other sub 
committees. 1 

The Finance Committee of the mission is composed of 
nine laymen, two missionaries and the Secretary of the 
mission. There have always been influential laymen willing 
to give their services, and one of these, Sir VV. W. Mitchell, 
K.C.M.G., who died in Colombo on December 15, 1915, had 
been a valuable member for thirty-one years. 

i A new constitution granted by the Parent Committee came into force 
at the August Conference, 1921. See Appendix. 


In the year 1843 an Association, under the patronage of 
His Excellency, Sir Colin Campbell (then Governor), the 
Bishop of Madras and some of the principal members of the 
Civil Service, was established, in order to assist the evange 
listic and educational work of the C.M.S. in Colombo and the 
Western Province. From the commencement the Ceylon 
Association of the C.M.S. as it is now called, has contributed 
largely to the local funds of the mission, and for several 
years has made grants to the stations and has supported 
workers. The receipts of the Association for the twenty-five 
years, 18911915, amounted to no less than Rs. 126,804. 

A few years ago a Home Branch of the Ceylon C.M.S. 
Association was formed by Mr. Ernest J. Carus Wilson, 
Woodlea, Barnet, (formerly of the Ceylon Mission) in order 
to retain the prayerful sympathy and practical help of those 
interested in Ceylon and also of those who, when resident in 
the island, subscribed to the work. Gifts are forwarded to 
Ceylon and donors receive the monthly Gleaner and the annual 
report of the Association. 

For some years the Church Missionary Gleaner, a monthly 
illustrated publication containing information of the work in 
various missions throughout the world, has been localized. 
The Ceylon portion furnishes details of local mission work 
and is edited by one of the missionaries. 

During the hundred years, 108 European missionaries, 
clerical and lay, and sixty European women missionaries 
(not including wives) have worked in the mission with, 
during the same period, thirty-three Tamil clergy and twenty- 
nine Sinhalese. 

As regards area, fully three-fourths of the island has 
been committed to the C.M.S. by diocesan authority, either 
for Sinhalese or Tamil work or for both, but it has to be 
acknowledged with regret that a great part of this area has 
never been effectively occupied. The following are the 




1. Mission Agents 

European Clergy .... ... ... 16 

Ceylonese Clergy ... ... .... 27 

Women Missionaries ... ... ... 14 

Catechists and Readers .. ... 122 

Biblevvomen ... ... ... 37 

School Masters ... ... ... 479 

School Mistresses ... ... ... 319 

2. Congregations 

Communicants ... ... ... 6,041 

Christians (adults and children) including 

the Communicants ... ... .,. 14,796 

Adult candidates for baptism ... ... 302 

3. Baptisms in 1918 

Adults ... ... ... ... 224 

Children ... ... ... ... 487 

4. Sunday Schools ... ... ... 253 

Scholars ... ... ... ... 9,749 

5. Educational 

Training Schools 

Students ... .. 52 

High Schools 4 

Students ... ... 1357 

Middle Schools ... ... 15 

Students ... ... ... 1,342 

Elementary Schools 

Students ... ... ... 23,814 

Industrial Schools 

Students ... ... 141 




6. Contributions in 1918 


Grants by Parent Committee and contri 
butions received through them ... 184,714:24 

Contributions by Europeans and Burghers. 31,057:52 
Contributions by Sinhalese and Tamils for 

their own Churches ... ... 42,346:10 

Contributions for Tamil Cooly Mission ... 11,734:84 

Ceylon Association ... ... ... 7,538:69 

Total ... 92,677:15 

It must be borne in mind that in dealing with the statistics 
the figures refer only to what are known as the C.M.S. 
districts, for instance, the number of Christians given above 
as 14,796, is the number living in the districts belonging to 
the congregations for that year. Many of our young people 
who by our means have been brought to the knowledge of the 
truth, move out into the world to obtain a livelihood, and 
attach themselves to other congregations. There is not a 
parish or district in the island in which will not be found 
those who have at one time or another, been connected with 
our districts or schools. 

In 1918 the C.M.S. thus had in Ceylon 314 schools with 
26,654 students. 

Three hundred and ten of these schools received grants-in- 
aid from Government that year, amounting to Rs. 118,866 
or nearly ^"7,924. The twenty-one English schools received 
of this amount, Rs. 36,300:50, the four Anglo- Vernacular 
schools, Rs. 4,375:21 and the 285 Vernacular schools, 
Rs. 78,190:61. 



Again, the results of missionary work cannot be gauged by 
the number of converts living at any particular date. The 
real fruits of the work are the souls that have passed to the 
everlasting rest. Dr. Stock truly says in the History of the 
C.M.S. (vol. iii, p. 769) : Let it be repeated, that statistics 
fail to show the best fruits, the fruits already gathered into 
the heavenly garner, and no mission has given brighter 
examples of Christian deaths crowning Christian lives than 
the mission in Ceylon. 








European Clergy ... 
Ceylonese Clergy ... 
Lay Workers 










1,744 | 








1888 1898 1908 191S 


European Clergy ... 






Ceylonese Clergy ... 



17 ! 21 


Lay Workers 



644 844 









1,512 i 






222 I 













KANDY, beautifully situated in a valley amid the Kandyan 
hills, seventy-two miles from Colombo and 1,654 feet above 
sea-level, was founded about A.D. 1200 and from the year 
1592 to 1815 was the Capital of the Sinhalese Kings. Kandy 
or Kande means the hill or hill country, but it is known to 
the people as Maha Nuwara, the great city. Cruelty on 
the part of the last Sinhalese king had made his subjects 
regard him with hatred, and the execution of the wife and 
children of his prime minister, Ehelapola, led the people to 
compass his overthrow. The British were invited to help, 
and the arrest and death in exile of the tyrant, Sri Wickrama 
Raja Singha, terminated the line of Sinhalese kings. On 
March 2, 1815, the British flag was hoisted and the interior 
came under the dominion of the British Crown. , At a Con 
vention on the same day, between the Governor and the 
chiefs, it was agreed that the late sovereign had forfeited all 
claims to that title and that his descendants should be for 
ever excluded from the throne. It was also agreed that the 
religion of Buddha should be inviolable and its rites, ministers 
and places of worship maintained and protected. The spirit 
of independence, however, still remained, the chiefs would 
not brook the restraints of the new government, and within 
three years a rebellion broke out the suppression of which 
cost the lives of a thousand British and many natives. 

About this time the population of Kandy was about three- 
thousand, whilst to-day it is over thirty thousand, and the low 
country people in the town out-number the Kandyans by 


nearly three thousand. A wonderful change has taken place 
in Kandy during the last hundred years. In the early day?, 
the town consisted of mud huts thatched with straw, the streets 
being almost impassable, with open drains on each side, six 
or seven feet wide, which acted as receptacles for the filth of 
the town and over which were placed planks as approaches to 
the huts. Villagers brought in produce from the country, 
fowls could be bought at two pence each and one hundred and 
twenty eggs for a shilling. There were no proper roads and 
the first mail coach did not run till 1832. When the first 
C.M.S. missionaries arrived in Ceylon, the Governor strongly 
urged that one of their number should commence work in 
Kandy. There were many reasons which favoured this. 
Here was the temple, the Dalada Malagawa, containing the 
so-called tooth of Buddha, which was regarded with supersti 
tious reverence by the Buddhists, also the viharas or colleges 
of the priests. The independence of the people was in itself 
a safeguard against hypocrisy and a pledge of their sincerity 
when they should be led to profess faith in Christ. So in 
1818 the Rev. S. Lambrick entered on his work in Kandy. 
On October 27, 1818, he wrote I cannot be permitted at 
present to preach to the natives, but I have obtained author 
ity to open schools, and have obtained two priests to be the 
masters of them. The children will be especially taught to 
read and write their own language as a step towards their 
receiving the words of eternal life. Mr. Lambrick was for 
two years the only Church of England clergyman in Kandy 
and consequently gave much time to the spiritual care of the 
troops and other Europeans there. On the eve of the depar 
ture of the Governor, Sir R. Brownrigg, from the island, a 
levee was held at which the four C.M.S. missionaries were 
present and presented an address, to which the Governor 
replied, The whole island is now in a state of tranquillity, 
most favourable for the cultivation and improvement of the 


human mind. I cannot doubt but that under the guidance of 
providence, the progress of Christianity will be general, if the 
zeal for propagating the knowledge of Christianity be tem 
pered with such a sound discretion as has been exhibited 
already by one of your mission (Mr. Lambrick) in the centre 
of the heathen population. It is my sincere wish that you 
may all follow that example, and that your success may 
justify my partial feelings of regard for the missionaries of 
the established Church. On October 28, 1821, the Rev. 
and Mrs. Thomas Browning arrived to work with Mr. 
Lambrick. Owing to want of success among the Kandyans, 
there was some thought of abandoning the town and starting 
work in an interior village. The Government however 
would not sanction the removal on account of the unsettled 
state of the country. At the end of May, 1822, Mr. Lambrick 
removed to the low country. In June, 1822, Mr. Browning 
obtained from Government a grant of land, which still forms 
part of the Trinity College compound, on which he erected a 
bungalow and school room. Service was held in the school 
on Sundays, several Kaffir soldiers belonging to the Ceylon 
regiment were under instruction, and the Sinhalese prisoners 
in the jail were visited. At the end of 1823 there were 127 
children attending the five schools which had been opened. 

Bishop Heber, on his visit to Kandy in 1825, says We 
went up with the Governor, Sir E. Barnes, to Kandy, where I 
preached, administered the sacrament, and confirmed twenty- 
six young persons in the audience hall of the late King of 
Kandy, which now serves as a Church. Here, twelve years 
ago, this man, who was a dreadful tyrant, used to sit in state, 
to see those whom he had condemned, trodden to death by 
elephants trained for the purpose. Here he actually com 
pelled the wife of one of his chief ministers, to bruise to death 
in a mortar, with a pestle, with her own hands, one of her 
children, before he put the other to death, and here at the 


time, no Englishman or Christian could have appeared, unless 
as a slave, or at the risk of being murdered. Now, in this 
very place, an English Governor and an English congregation, 
besides many converted natives of the island, were sitting 
peaceably to hear an English bishop preach. 

In 1826 a further piece of land was granted by Government 
for a burial ground. In 1827, there were eight communi 
cants from the Portuguese and Sinhalese, whose moral 
conduct was consistent and in 1830 the state of things had 
not much altered for the better. In March, 1831, Bishop 
Turner of Calcutta visited the station and confirmed thirty-six 
candidates, and in October of the same year the first Sunday 
school was opened. 

The mission was strengthened in June, 1835, by the arrival 
of the Rev. William Oakley. Soon after, a house to house 
visitation of the Sinhalese Protestant Christians in Kandy 
was started, and in fifty families containing about three 
hundred persons, it was found that family worship was only 
kept up in ten, some were totally destitute of the word of 
God, some never attended divine worship, some were living 
in open sin, and others were found neglecting the baptism 
and education of their children. Another investigation of the 
number of Protestant families that were not Sinhalese was 
made, and it was found that out of five hundred and eighty 
souls in one hundred and twenty-three families, eighty children 
were unbaptized, and in between thirty and forty families, the 
parents were living together unmarried. 

Mr. Oakley also visited the villages, the hospitals in the 
town and the Malay soldiers of the Ceylon Rifle regiment. 

Mr. Browning died at sea in July, 1838, when only two 
days sail from England. The Bishop of Madras visited the 
mission in November, 1839, and wrote My next visit was to a 
place very interesting to me, the Church Missionary premises 
in Kandy, where under the devoted care of Mr. Oakley the 


work grows and flourishes. His school room, which is also his 
Church, is becoming much too small for either purpose. He 
understands his work, and loves it, and is evidently doing 
good. In 1840 there were at Kandy besides Mr. and Mrs. 
Oakley, eighteen native teachers, of whom two were women. 
There were twenty-two communicants and thirteen schools, 
containing three hundred and thirteen boys and fifty-six girls. 
Mrs. Oakley, who died on July 14, 1866, aged fifty-one years, 
was a remarkable woman, speaking both Tamil and Sinhalese, 
exercising great power for good and universally respected. 
A tablet to her memory was placed in Holy Trinity Church 
by the congregation. 

For many years Mr. Oakley and the catechists visited the 
district of Yatanuwara, about twelve miles from Kandy, and 
during one of his early visits in 1837, a man who had been a 
prisoner in the Kandy jail expressed a wish to be baptized. 
On his release from prison, he returned to Ratmiwela, his 
village, taking with him some tracts and Scripture portions. 
He attended regularly the Sunday services in Kandy. He 
had been a devil dancer, and brought all his books connected 
with devil worship to the missionary saying, With these 
books I have for a long time deceived myself and the 
people. I shall use them no more. God has shown me 
that I must give up all these things, and I now give them 
to you, lest my family should get hold of them, and also 
be deceived. His relations were greatly enraged with him 
for forsaking his old religion, and one of his brothers procured 
a gun intending to shoot him. He was baptized on Sunday, 
June 3, 1838, by the name of Abraham. The following 
August his eldest son was baptized by the name of Isaac, 
and his wife, who was at the first very much opposed to the 
step which her husband had taken, was on January 3, 1841, 
baptized by the name of Sarah. 

Abraham was appointed school master in his native village, 


and six years after his baptism, the brother who had threat 
ened to shoot him was baptized by the name of Samuel. 
Samuel built a new school in the village and in 1849 a 
resident catechist was appointed. There were only three 
women in the whole district at that time who could read and 
write, and they were Mary, Martha and Rebecca, the daugh 
ters of Abraham. Two other women were also baptized by 
the names of Christina and Lydia, and the former became 
the wife of David, a son of Abraham. Samuel died in 1867, 
having lived a consistent life from the day of his conversion. 
In 1860 died one, who had for forty years been a great 
strength and help to the Kandy mission, Cornelius Jayatilaka. 
From the very first he had connected himself with the 
mission, and aided in the erection of the buildings and the 
formation of schools and congregations. He was a Govern 
ment officer of high rank, a Mudaliyar of the Governor s Gate, 
and a humble and consistent Christian. During a rebellion 
of the Kandyans, he obtained possession of the so-called 
tooth of Buddha. The relic is, in the eyes of the Kandyans, 
of priceless value. For its surrender to the Buddhists, 
Jayatilaka might have made his own terms and named his 
own price. But true to his trust, he hid the relic in his long 
hair, made his way to the Commandant, and placed it in his 
hands. The fact of its capture broke the spirit of the rebels, 
and the rising was at once quelled. It was a striking sight 
to see this man of high family and rank kneeling at the 
Lord s Table close beside two half-naked Kandyan converts 
and with them partaking of the memorials of the death and 
passion of his Saviour and theirs. 

During Mr. Oakley s time Trinity Church in the Mission 
compound and churches at Katukelle and Getambe were 
built. Trinity Church cost about ^"1,000 towards which 
the Sinhalese gave /~500. Shortly before Mr. Oakley s 
retirement, Trinity Church was transferred to the care of the 


Rev. Cornelius Jayasinha, and a council composed of Sinhalese 
gentlemen was formed for the management of the affairs of 
the three churches. 

From the commencement of the Kandy Mission in 1818 to 
the year of Mr. Oakley s retirement in 1867, the number of 
adults baptized in connection with the congregations at Kandy 
was 128, viz. seventy-four men and fifty-four women. Of 
these thirty-six were Kandyans. 

In 1872 the Rev. Henry Gunasekara (the son of the late 
Rev. A. Gunasekara of Baddegama) was appointed to Trinity 
Church, and for thirty-seven years till February 1909 when 
he retired, was the faithful pastor and friend of the congre 
gations. The Christians in 1909 numbered 395, of whom 195 
were communicants. Mr. Gunasekara died in 1916. 

When the Missionary Conference assembled at Cotta on 
July 14, 1885, an incident occurred which was unique in the 
history of the mission. It was just over fifty years since 
Mr. Oakley had arrived in Ceylon, and with the exception of 
a short visit to India of three months, he had never been away 
from the island. Past and present missionaries had subscribed 
to a fund to provide a scholarship in connection with Trinity 
College, to bear his name, and this, which amounted to 
Rs. 800, was presented together with a copy of the Revised 
Version of the Bible and an illuminated address in the follow 
ing words : 

We, your fellow-labourers, and others who have worked 
with you in this mission, desire to offer you our warmest 
congratulations on the completion of your fiftieth year of 
missionary service in Ceylon. It is a matter of deep thank 
fulness to us all, that in God s mercy and love you have been 
allowed to spend so many years of continued labour in our 
Master s cause. During the long period you have been 
connected with this branch of the Church Missionary Society, 
it has been your earnest desire to glorify our Lord and Saviour 





Jesus Christ, and as Secretary of this Mission, you have 
enjoyed the hearty, loving confidence of your brethren, over 
whose Conference you have so long presided. We have also 
a grateful remembrance of many personal kindnesses received 
at your hands. You hav r e been glad with us in our joys, and 
in our troubles you have always sympathized, while the 
matured wisdom of your counsel and advice, your prudence, 
and forbearing gentleness, have been used by God in great 
measure, to secure that unity of feeling and of action which, 
has characterized our mission for so many years. 

We wish you to accept this volume the Revised Version 
of the Bible as a token of our esteem and affection, and to 
allow us to associate with your name a prize or exhibition, to 
be known as the Oakley Prize or Exhibition, in connection 
with Trinity College, Kandy, the station where the greater 
part of your active missionary life was spent. 

That our Heavenly Father may graciously spare you to 
us for many years to come, and, when your work on earth is 
finished, give you an abundant entrance into His eternal 
kingdom and glory, is the fervent desire and earnest prayer of 
your brethren of the Ceylon Mission. 

Just a year after, on July 11, 1886, Mr. Oakley entered 
into rest at Nuwara Eliya, aged seventy-nine years. . To the 
last he was the active Secretary and revered counsellor and 
friend of the whole mission. 

On February 13, 1909, the Rev. Gregory S. Amarasekara 
was appointed Incumbent of Trinity Church, the congrega 
tions connected therewith giving him a hearty welcome. 

In 1918 the congregation of Trinity Church numbered 215 
adults and eighty -three children, of whom 161 were communi 
cants, whilst the average attendance at the Sunday morning 
service was 105 adults. The annual sale of work produces 
over Rs. 500 and one of the members of St. John s Church, 
.Gatambe, bequeathed one thousand rupees to that Church. 



FOR some years the leading Sinhalese in Kandy had been 
urging on the C.M.S. the need of a superior school for the 
education of their sons, and had promised their support and 

On October 16, 1857, the Rev. John Ireland Jones 
arrived from England and opened an establishment, under 
the name of the Kandy Collegiate School. Its primary 
object was to attract the sons of the Kandyan chiefs. In 
this it was not successful, although many of the principal 
residents of the town availed themselves of its advantages. 
The institution continued in operation for about six years, 
being during the latter half of the time under the charge of 
the Rev. R. B. Tonge. 

On January 18, 1872, it was re-opened under the name 
of Trinity College and Collegiate School with the Rev. R. 
Collins as Principal, and Mr. Alfred Clark as Tutor, and 
quickly took an important position which it has since main 
tained. At the end of the same year there were 120 students 
on the roll. 

Early in 1877 the latter half of the name was dropped 
and from thenceforth it became Trinity College, and the 
Kandy Prince of Wales Reception Fund Committee pre 
sented the college with Rs. 2,000 in memory of his Royal 
Highness visit to Kandy. In the following year the college 
was affiliated to the Calcutta University, and in 1879 the 
Acting Principal, Mr. Thomas Dunn, reported The Govern 
ment examination was satisfactory, 90 per cent of passes 
being obtained. The Entrance and F.A. examinations were 
held in December. Six students went up for the first, and 
three for the second examination. 

In 1880 the Rev. J. G. Garrett was appointed Principal, 
and the following year there were 238 students, thirty of 
these being boarders. In 1883 the Rev. J. Field was appointed 



Vice-Principal. In 1885 the Rev. E. Noel Hodges, formerly 
of the Noble High School in Masulipatam, became Principal, 
assisted by the Rev. J. Ilsley. In 1889 Mr. Hodges was 
appointed to the Bishopric of Travancore and Cochin, and 
his post at Kandy was taken by the Rev. E. J. Perry, who 
had been a master at Merchant Taylors School. He threw 
himself into the work with a bright enthusiasm that augured 
great things, but on April 2, 1890, he was accidentally shot 
dead near Alut-nuwara, whilst on a visit to the Veddahs in. 
the Bintenne country. As a memorial to him, a college 
mission, known as the Perry Memorial Mission was started 
in an outlying district. The Rev. J. W. Fall, the Vice-Prin 
cipal, who had arrived in November 1889, carried on the 
work of the college, until the arrival of the new Principal, 
the Rev. H. P. Napier-Clavering, in June 1890. At that 
time there were 298 students, sixty-three of whom were 
boarders. Owing to the increased number of students two 
blocks of additional buildings were erected. 

In November, 1891, the Rev. J. Carter arrived as Vice- 
Principal. The following year, Mr. Napier-Clavering reported 
that there were many boys hoping to be baptized as soon as 
they became their own masters and that on Advent Sunday 
seventeen of the students were confirmed. 

In 1895 the Rev. R. W. Ryde became Vice-Principal till 
August 1899, and the Rev. A. A. Pilson arrived to fill the 
vacancy in March 1900. Mr. Pilson died of typhoid fever 
at Nuwara Eliya on April 30, 1902, aged twenty-nine. 
The Rev. H. P. Napier-Clavering s resignation on account of 
home claims in A\igust 1900, was universally regretted, as he 
was popular both with masters and boys, and the college had 
prospered under him. The period of his Principalship was 
emphatically one of progress, new buildings were erected, the 
number of students increased and the general status of the 
college Raised. The Rev. R. W. Ryde succeeded to the 


Principalship. The average daily attendance that year was 
323 out of a roll of 410. The primary school, nurtured by 
the college, showed a daily attendance of fifty-four out of 
eighty-three, for the same period. 

In 1902 the Rev. J. Carter became temporarily Principal 
and early the following year, the Rev. A. MacLulich 
MacLulich, Vice-Principal. During 190+ the college was 
carried on under the guidance of no less than four heads, 
succeeding each other. I Ir. Carter was in charge until his 
departure for England on May 6, the Rev. H. P. Napier- 
Clavering till August 7, then the Rev. A. MacLulich, and, 
from November 5, Mr. A. G. Fraser. The annual report 
showed that in the highest things the year had been one of 
prosperity and blessing. It says, The Te Deum has been 
swelling more and more as the months have rolled on. This 
year is in every sense an improvement on last, and has 
been continually improving on itself. Five lads have been 
baptized, and thirteen were confirmed by the Bishop. Under 
Mr. Fraser s masterly direction the school has gone forward 
to a remarkable degree. The compound has been extended 
by the acquisition of new land ; new buildings have been 
erected ; a magnificent playing field of several acres has 
been hewn from a hillside ; a strong staff including several 
Europeans has been built up, and the school has been further 
developed as a boarding school anl has acquired a distinctive 
character and spirit. These things have involved a heavily 
increased expenditure and Mr. Fraser has worked successfully 
for the establishment of the Trinity College Extension Fund 
which has made these schemes of development possible. 

In 1905 a bungalow and compound known as Woodlands, 
adjoining the college premises, were acquired by means of 
money collected by Mr. Fraser, thus giving a residence for 
the Principal and leaving the college bungalow for the 
Vice- Principal. 


In August, 1906, Mr. Fraser was suddenly ordered home 
on account of ill-health. The Rev. W. S. Senior, who had 
recently arrived, assumed the office of Acting Principal, and 
was joined later in the year by the Rev. A. M. Walmsley. 

Towards the end of the year 1908, Mr. Fraser returned 
with reinforcements of men, viz. the Rev. J. P. S. R. Gibson 
and Messrs. N. P. Campbell and K. J. Saunders, backed up 
by a wealth of prayer and sympathy. The aim of Mr. Fraser 
and the methods by which he proposed to achieve it may be 
best expressed in his own words. 

The Aim. We intend to make a serious effort 

First.- To train Christians in Ceylon so to present Christ 
that their hearers may realize Him not as a foreigner, but as 
the real and true fulfilment of all that is best and highest in 
their aspirations and in their past. 

Second. To make the pupils good citizens of their own 
land, (a) By carefully relating all that is taught them to the 
needs, problems and language of their own people, (b) By 
deliberately striving to foster and encourage their sense cf 
responsibility and readiness to act and, so working, to produce 

The Methods. We propose (a) The appointment of 
three capable and accomplished students to devote them 
selves to the study of education in India and Ceylon, and of 
Hindu and Buddhist apologetics, (b) The establishment of a 
good training college for Christian teachers in the Vernacular 
and English and the creation of a ladder from the village 
school to the college with its possibilities of leadership. We 
hope by basing our education on the Vernaculars whilst 
teaching English thoroughly, to make the transition from 
village school to college easier, and to instruct pupils more 
readily and more intelligently from the basis of their own 
knowledge, (c) The efficient prosecution of higher education 
on the lines of the Japanese code or of the Arya Samaj in its 


national gurukulas, i.e. education in their own classics 
combined with that of the West, and modern science, (d) In 
all. we hope to devolve responsibility more and more on the 
people themselves, to strictly limit the number of our pupils 
that each may have individual attention, and that there may 
be close contact between teachers and taught. To sum up : 
We are attempting to translate into carefully planned action 
the belief that the hope of the future lies with the native 
Christians, and our energies are most wisely exercised when not 
directly employed on Hindus, Mohammedans and Buddhists, 
but when building up a wise, eager and indigenous Church. 

In 1909 Mr. N. P. Campbell designed new buildings which 
were erected at the cost of ^"3000. These contain a chemi 
cal laboratory, a physical laboratory with gallery, a class 
room, quarters for two masters, a masters common room, and 
a dormitory containing sixty beds. The compound was 
improved and two acres of land adjoining were leased from 
Government for ninety-nine years. In this year, Mr. G. K. 
Mulgrue, who had been on the teaching staff for some years, 
was taken into local connection. 

The Rev. L. J. Gaster joined the staff in 1910. The 
following year Mr. Eraser left on a visit to England to plead 
for funds to carry out a Training Colony scheme and during 
his absence the Rev. H. P. Napier-Clavering was Honorary 
Acting Principal. 

In 1914 Mr. K. J. Saunders who during his stay in Ceylon 
had written several books and pamphlets on Buddhism, left the 
College to take up Y.M.C.A. work in India. Mr. Campbell 
also left for England in the same year for training in 
connection with the war, and Mr. A. C. Houlder, who had 
previously been on the staff as a short service man, 
rejoined the college as missionary in full connection. 

At the close of 1915 the Rev. K. C. McPherson joined the 
teaching staff as a missionary of the C.M.S., and the Rev. 


W. S. Senior who had been Vice- Principal for eight years, 
left to take charge of Christ Church, Galle Face, Colombo. 

The Trinity College Annual for 1914 gives a wonderful 
account of the various activities and agencies of the college. 
It consists of nearly one hundred pages and many illustrations. 
The spiritual side is put well to the front as the following 
quotation will show : Trinity College, while a public 
school on the best lines, is before all a missionary school. Its 
success is not indeed to be measured by mere numbers of those 
baotized and confirmed or by the number of communicants. 
It is rather to be sought in the " atmosphere " and " tone," the 
outlook on life and the general product of the place. Yet if 
the general product never crystallized in particular results, 
our success would be questionable. It is with gratitude, then, 
that we are able to record a number of baptisms in 1913, and 
a few in the current year. No pressure save that of public 
preaching (and the " atmosphere " alluded to), no preferential 
treatment is ever brought to bear. Truth is our one weapon, 
and in several cases the candidates have very real obstacles 
of antecedents and circumstance to overcome. As to Confir 
mation, the numbers seem to increase yearly, and the annual 
Confirmation Service more and more becomes a red letter 
day of our calendar. No one can be present either on the 
Sunday evenings when public baptism is administered, or on 
the afternoons when the Bishop confirms, without being 
much moved and much inspired, with the thought of the 
reality and value of the educational missionary task. 

The students who are communicants have a Communi 
cants Union, the Sunday School has twenty-eight classes 
and 210 students, there is also a Union for Social Service, 
and in 1914 a College Hostel was opened in Colombo, 
where so many Trinity boys go down for employment or to 
continue their studies. There is also a College Cadet Corps, 
and Cricket, Rugger, Boxing, Fives and Tennis are keenly 


supported. There are also Literary and Reading Associa 
tions, and a Masters Guild. 

In the report of the year s work read at the Prize-giving in 
1915, the Rev. A. G. Eraser said, for the third year in 
succession we headed the Commercial examination, and in 
the Cambridge Senior Local four of our students won the 
first four places in the Empire in Book-keeping. In the 
Junior Local we passed twenty candidates, one obtaining 
first class honours, and we obtained four distinctions. In the 
Senior Local we passed thirty-five candidates, with two 
second class honours, five third class, and ten distinctions. 
In the Intermediate in Arts all our three candidates passed. 
In the Inter Science we presented four and all passed. In 
athletics, we won the Cricket Championship, and the Inter 
collegiate Shooting Cup for the ninth time in succession. 
We were the winners also of the Inter-collegiate Shields for 
Physical Drill, and for Military Drill, and we still retain the 
Boxing Shield. Our Rugby Football team was again with 
out rivals, and the only Inter-collegiate competition we have 
not come first in is that for track running, and in that we 
were equal second. 

The Rev. L. J. Gaster went on furlough in 1915, and 
returned the following year. In his report as Acting Principal 
he says, I had the privilege of preparing twelve boys for 
confirmation, and a few for baptism. To see those boys 
coming forward in the fa:e of opposition, ready to confess 
Christ in baptism, and to take up their cross and follow Him, 
is something which does not fail to leave its mark on oneself 
also. It can be said most emphatically that the Life and 
Person of Jesus Christ make a strong appeal, and an appeal 
not in vain to the young life of Ceylon. 

Mr. A. C. Houlder writes, The Social Service Union is, 
I believe, the strongest agency we have whereby the fulness 
of Christ, the life in Christ, may be demonstrated. The work 


is voluntary, the motto, " A patriot can serve his country only 
when he makes their sorrows and disabilities his own." There 
are about thirty members amongst the boys, and at least eight 
earnest workers amongst the masters. We have made 
frequent visits to villages, treating cases of sores and ulcers, 
and teaching games to the boys. We have also opened a 
school in an outcaste village. These people are mat-weavers 
by occupation. They are not allowed to attend school with 
any other caste people, and until we went there no Kandyan 
of good family had been near them at all. Our boys have 
visited them frequently, bicycling ten miles, or walking 
seven each way, to see the school, lecture to the boys, 
and help them in any way possible, also visiting their 

The following with regard to the great war is an extract from 
the Report read at the Annual Prize Giving in December, 1918: 
The war ended almost as suddenly as it began. Trinity 
College is never a dull place, and has on occasions shown a 
wonderful energy of expression, but when the news came 
through that Germany had signed the armistice we surpassed 
all previous records in the irresponsible enthusiasm of our 

There are sixty-two names on our Roll of Honour. Of 
this number ten were killed in action on the Western Front, 
one was drowned in the Mediterranean on his way to England 
to enlist, and one died of disease contracted on active service. 
In the midst of our rejoicings we think of these brave souls 
who will never return : R. Aiyadurai, N. P. Campbell, 
F. Drieberg, H. C. Forster, C. F. H. Kent, J. Loos, 
K. Murray, A. G. F. Perera, A. Paramananthan, R. Skipp, 
P. Scott-Coates, and A. J. Wells. They went forth unafraid 
to defend the right, and they gave their lives that the right 
might triumph. We thank God for their courage, their 
vision, and their self-sacrifice. 


One of the last to fall in the conflict was Herbert Forsteiv 
who left school for the Front early last year, and was killed 
in France in March of this year at the age of nineteen. 

Besides those who gave their lives, eighteen of our number 
were wounded or gassed, and two were made prisoners. 
Those who received decorations are J. W. S. Bartholomeusz, 
who was awarded the French Croix de Guerre of the First 
Class, and Vere Modder, who won the Military Medal. Capt. 
E. C. Squire, who joined our staff and was about to sail for 
Ceylon when war broke out, has been awarded the Military 

Three of our boys on the Western Front obtained Com 
missions, the last being Ajit Rudra, the son of the Principal 
of St. Stephen s College, Delhi, and five of our Old Boys 
recently obtained Commissions in the I. A. R. O. 

Mr. N. P. Campbell joined H. M. Forces at the end of 
1914, obtaining a Commission as Captain in the Royal Engi 
neers, and was killed in action on May 3, 1917. An 
In Memoriam notice in the C.M.S. Gleaner for the following 
month says, Not only in the school but outside it in Kandy 
were Mr. Campbell s energies spent. His work among the 
poor and needy and his keen efforts to help them, and to 
uplift them, are well known. Often was he seen alone on a 
roadside helping a lame man or binding up a sore foot. Even 
the poor in hospital knew him and were cheered by the 
concerts he organized for them. He did not spare himself in 
doing all he could for the needy, among whom he was much 

Early in the war he left us as he believed " no man had a 
right to keep away." Nothing could prevent him. He had 
dedicated his life to the cause of freedom. 

As He died to make men holy 
Let us live to make men free, 


were the words he set before him. On his final mission he 
was called away to a Greater Freedom on High. 


THIS institution takes its root in the first century of C.M.S. 
work and looks for its fruit in the second. It is the product 
of the past, and the prophet of the future. In main outline 
the plan was conceived by Mr. A. G. Fraser as far back 
as 1906. Into what it shall develop none can prophesy, for 
it faces the problems of the day in the dim though growing 
light of the future rather than in the still strong but waning 
twilight of the traditional past. 

In the first place the Training Colony is co-denominational. 
The Church Missionary Society and the Wesleyan Methodist 
Missionary Society in Ceylon have federated as regards the 
governing of this institution which is in the hands of a 
special Council. The C.M.S. have at present the preponder 
ating interest on the basis of larger capital invested, but 
there is nothing in the Constitution which in any way gives 
special rights or privileges to either Society. 

Students from both Societies are admitted and the whole 
policy is that of the fullest combination possible for essen 
tially similars, and not that of the mere juxtaposition of radi 
cally differents. Students eat and sleep, work and play, and 
also worship together except for the Sunday morning services, 
when as members of their respective Churches the students 
attend their own Church or Chapel. At the same time each 
Society has full rights and opportunities for teaching its own 
members such special doctrines or beliefs as it feels to be 
its sacred contribution to the Universal Church. Each 
Society has a Vice-Principal in residence to whom the super 
vision of the religious life of his flock is specially entrusted. 
Of these two, one is chosen Principal and as such impartially 
administers the joint interests of the Colony. Secondly, the 


Colony is co-educational. Men and women are trained in 
joint classes, and Sinhalese women, as well as men, teach 
the^e classes* This is as real a step forward as is the whole 
hearted denominational federation, and is preparing the way 
for woman to take her right place in the East. 

There are two main departments, the normal training of 
Sinhalese teachers for primary vernacular schools, and the 
training of evangelists. In the former there are about forty 
men and forty women. The course lasts three years and the 
objective is the Government Diploma. Government grants 
amounted last year to just over Rs. 7,000. The Evangelist 
Class is more irregular and so far no such class for women 
has been started. 

The staff comprises three Europeans and seven Ceylonese. 

The main policy of the work is summed up by the motto 
Victory through self-sacrifice, self-expression attained 
through self-abnegation, Christ in me the hope of Glory. The 
vitalizing force in the Colony is the half -hour spent corpo- 
rately in silent prayer each morning. From this observance 
flows power that gives meaning to the rest of the day. 

In many ways, by special services for seed-sowing and 
harvesting, by a service of beating the bounds, by national 
music and art, by processions and illuminations, we seek to 
enable religious faith to express itself in national forms and 
the spontaneity of the expression makes one believe that the 
springs are deep. Apart from the daily half-hour of quiet, 
frequent times are taken when staff and students wait in 
silence upon God, with the mind receptive for the impress of 
the Divine. The medical side of the work enables the idea 
of Social Service to be developed and the elements of First- 
Aid to be acquired. The learning of pottery painting adds 
another form of beautiful self-expression. The elementary 
principles of agriculture which are taught send the men forth 
the better able to deal with rural problems. 




Drill, games and mountaineering excursions develop the 
body and open the mind to the glories of Nature. 

Such in outline is the ideal. In conclusion a few facts may 
be of interest. The Colony is on the site of the Rosehill 
Estate, Peradeniya Junction, and contains now about thirty 
acres planted in tea and rubber. The buildings comprise 
the Principal s Bungalow, the Women s Hostel (Laurie 
Hall), the Men s Hostel (Ashley Hall), and the main teaching 
school (Fraser Hall), the right wing of which is the Vice- 
Principal s house. There are also houses for the married 
staff, a dispensary, and buildings for the Evangelist Depart 
ments both men s and women s. The Colony was acquired 
and opened in 1914. Work began in Laurie Hall in 1916, in 
Ashley Hall in 1917, and in Fraser Hall in 1918. The total 
capital cost has been over Rs. 125,000. 



JAFFNA, in the extreme north, is a town of about 50,000 
inhabitants, and the northern province, of which it is the 
capital, contains a population of 330,000, nearly all of whom 
are Tamils. Jaffna is 207 miles from Colombo, and, until the 
railway was opened in 1905, it seemed to be cut off from the 
rest of the island. A large fort still stands which was built by 
the Portuguese in 1624, and the massive Church in the form 
of a Greek cross, with the date 1706 over the main entrance, 
testifies to the importance of Jaffna in the Dutch period. 
Jaffna is supposed to have been founded in the year A.D. 101 
and is thus described in Casie Chetty s Tamil Plutarch : 
Yalpana was a minstrel who lived in the Chola country. 
Being blind, he depended on the earnings of his wife. One 
day his meals were not ready at the proper hour, so he quar 
relled with his wife and left the house saying he was going to 
Ceylon. When he arrived there, he was refused admittance 
into the king s presence, but it was afterwards arranged that 
the king should stand behind a curtain and hear the blind 
minstrel s song. The king, being greatly pleased, honoured 
him with the gift of a tusked elephant, and by the donation of 
a piece of land in the northern extremity of the island in 
perpetuity. This was no other than the present peninsula of 
Jaffna. It was then uninhabited and covered with jungle, but 
he had it cleared, and, having induced a colony of Tamils from 
Southern India to settle in it, soon rendered it a rich country, 
which he called after his own professional name Yalpana 
Nadu, that is, the minstrel s country. 


Yalpana has been corrupted into the modern name of Jaffna. 
The climate and scenery differ from those of the other parts of 
tne island. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people, 
palmyra palms and tobacco being the chief products. The 
C.M.S., the American Board of Foreign Missions, the 
Wesleyans and the Roman Catholics, have all strong missions 
in the district. The proportion per cent, of the adherents of 
each religion to the total population in 1911 was, Hindus 
87-76, Mohammedans I ll, Buddhists 09, and Christians 

The Rev. Joseph Knight, the first C.M.S. missionary, 
arrived in Jaffna in July, 1818, and moved to Nellore in 
November. As soon as he commenced work he met with 
difficulties and opposition. The people thought it necessary 
to bathe themselves and purify their houses after the mission 
ary s visit, and it was usual for the pundit to bathe at the 
tank on his way home after giving a lesson at the Mission 
House. The first printing press was set up by Mr. Knight, 
and thousands of tracts were printed and distributed. The 
extent of their distribution may be judged from the fact that 
1,002,800 tracts were issued from the press in the years 1835- 
to 1838. This printing press was afterwards sold to the 
American Mission. 

In 1820 there were 270 children in the schools, and much 
visiting was done. The Rev. and Mrs. Joseph Bailey arrived 
in March, 1822, but they were able to remain only twelve 
months, during which time Mr. Bailey took the English 
duties at the Dutch Church. 

During this year Mr. Knight obtained from Government 
an old Dutch Church with a piece of land, adjoining the 
mission premises. Of this building, forty-two feet were taken 
from one end, for "a dwelling house. Mr. Knight married 
Mrs. S. B. Richards and after her death, Mrs. E. S. Nichols, 
both widows of American missionaries. He died at Cotta 


and was buried there on October 11, 1840, aged fifty-three. 
In the preface to Winslow s Comprehensive Tamil and 
English Dictionary, published at Madras in 1862, it is stated 
that it was commenced by the Rev. J. Knight, late of 

The Rev. W. Adley arrived in 1824 and continued till the 
death of Mrs. Adley in 1839, when he left for England, 
returning two years later, but being compelled owing to ill- 
health to relinquish his work in 1845. Mr. Adley died in 
England in 1889, aged ninety-seven years. In September 
1826, Mr. Adley baptized four young Tamil men, pupils in 
the boarding school which had been established in Nellore in 
1823. He wrote, I baptized the boys in the names of 
Edward Bickersteth, William Marsh, Jcsiah Pratt and John 
Raban, and afterwards described to them the characters of 
the persons whose names they bore, with a solemn exhorta 
tion that they would follow them as they followed Christ. 

The same year was baptized Samuel who had been a 
leader of devil worship, practised incantations, given offerings 
to religious mendicants, given a cow to a temple, keeping it at 
his own house and giving the priests the milk daily, and had 
presented a silver sword and shield as an offering to St. James 
at a Roman Catholic Church. He became a most earnest 
Christian. He met his death one evening as he was re 
turning from a missionary meeting, being bitten by a 
poisonous snake. His father, a heathen, said, Before, 
he was a devil, but after he gave himself up to Christ he put 
all evil away. Shortly after his death his wife received 
baptism. The Rev. F. W. Taylor joined the mission in 1839 
and remained till 1841, when the Rev. J. Talbot Johnston 
arrived and stayed eight years. 

The same year the district of Chundicully was taken over. 
The old Portuguese Church of St. John the Baptist, with its 
congregation of ninety, had been handed over to the C.M.S. by 


their old Pastor, the Rev. Christian David, who was a convert 
of the missionary Schwartsz, in South India. Services were 
conducted in it till 1862, when the present church was erected 
and dedicated to St. John the Baptist. 

The Rev. Robert Pargiter, who had come out as a 
Wesleyan missionary and had left that body and been ordained 
deacon in 1846 and priest in 1847 by Bishop Chapman, was 
added to the missionary band in 1846, spending the greater 
part of his time at Chundicully, till his retirement to England 
in 1864, where he died in 1915, aged ninety-eight years. The 
Rev. James O Neil arrived also in 1846 at Nellore. Mrs. 
O Neil under whose care the Girls Boarding School, which 
had been opened in 1842, had grown and prospered, died on 
December 16, 1848, aged twenty-seven. A tablet to her 
memory in Nellore Church says, After the short space of 
two years and nine months, spent in mission labour, she 
exchanged earth for heaven. Mr. O Neil returned to England 
in 1856. 

In July, 1847, Dr. Chapman, Bishop of Colombo, visited 
Jaffna, when one hundred and thirteen candidates were con 
firmed. In 1849 Copay was adopted as a separate mission 
district. The Mission House and Church were built on a 
piece of land given by Mr. P. A. Dyke, the Government 
Agent of the Province. The foundation stone of the church 
was laid on May 9, 1850, and the completed building opened 
on January 9, 1852, costing about ^"400. At the opening 
service three adults were baptized. The Rev. Robert Bren 
arrived at Copay in 1849 and returned to England in 1858. 
The Copay Training Institution for catechists, readers and 
teachers was opened in 1853. In 1855 so much hypocrisy 
and mercenary conduct appeared among the Christians in 
Jaffna, that it was proposed to close the stations and abandon 
the work, but a visit from Mr. Knight revived the spirits of 
the missionaries, and the work took a fresh start from that 


time. The Rev. C. C. MacArthur arrived in 1859 and extend 
ed the work till his retirement in 1867. The Rev. H. D. 
Buswell arrived in 1862, but was obliged to relinquish the 
work owing to ill-health in 1865. In February, 1867, the 
Rev. Thomas Good came, just as the schools had been closed 
and general work suspended in consequence of a visitation of 
cholera, and in January of the following year the Rev. David 
Wood arrived. 

In September, 1863, the chief catechist, Mr. J . Hensman, was 
ordained deacon by the Bishop of Colombo, and was made priest 
two years later. The Rev. J. Hensman was a most energetic 
and enthusiastic worker till his death in 1884. Three other 
catechists, Messrs. T. P. Handy, G. Champion and E. Hoole 
were ordained deacons in 1865. In 1868 when the Jubilee 
of the Mission was celebrated, the statistics of the Mission 
were, two European missionaries, four Tamil clergy, . ten 
catechists, three readers, thirty-four schoolmasters, ten school 
mistresses, one biblewoman, one colporteur, 677 Christians, 
237 communicants, nineteen boys schools with 961 pupils 
and seven girls schools with 397 girls. 

The following year, 8640 houses were visited by the 
pastors and catechists, 636 meetings held, the gospel preached 
to no less than 36,864 persons and work commenced in the 
Islands of Mundativu and Allypitty. A Church Council was 
formed and the amount contributed that year was \ 18-2-1. 

In September, 1870, the Bishop, Dr. Piers Claughton, 
visited the Mission and the following account of the visit is 
given in the C. M. Record of January, 1871. We are seldom 
favoured with the visits of our Diocesan. The way of access 
to Jaffna, since the island steamer was discontinued, is sc 
difficult and tedious that it requires no ordinary amount of 
courage and patience, first to undertake, and afterwards to 
endure the journey. It is almost as easy, and certainly more 
pleasant, to go to England from Colombo, than to come from 


Colombo to Jaffna. Having received a telegram from 
Mr. Templer of Manaar, that the Bishop had left there at 6 a.m. 
for Jaffna, I drove to the beach at 3 p.m. to meet him, but in 
consequence of light winds, or no wind at all, there was no 
appearance of the boat. I waited till 8.30 p.m., and returned 
to Nellore. However I had the pleasure of welcoming his 
Lordship at 12 o clock, midnight. The boat had grounded 
several times, and, in consequence of the darkness and shallow 
water, sailing in the large boat had become impossible, and 
his lordship wisely hailed a fishing barrow," whose occupant 
was engaged in his nightly toil, and in this primitive craft 
came safely to shore. 

On September 7, the Bishop held his visitation in St. John s 
Church, Chundicully. Four Tamil clergy, three English 
clergy and ten churchwardens were present. After this the 
Bishop visited the English Seminary, and in the afternoon a 
confirmation service was held at Nellore when twenty-seven 
candidates were presented. Next morning the Bishop exami 
ned the children of the schools of Chundicully under the 
mahogany trees, and afterwards held a confirmation in the 
church when twenty-eight candidates were confirmed. In 
the afternoon a confirmation was held at Copay where thirty 
candidates were presented, and the Bishop afterwards visited 
the English School and Training Institution. After sunset he 
attended a moonlight meeting two miles from Copay, and at 
9 o clock returned to Nellore. The following morning his 
lordship held a confirmation in the temporary church in the 
Pettah, when twenty-seven persons were confirmed, and the 
same afternoon laid the foundation stone of a church at 

On Saturday morning the Bishop visited the Girls Board 
ing School after which he examined the three candidates for 
priests orders, in the afternoon addressed the mission work 
ers at Nellore, and in the evening laid the foundation stone 



of the Pettah Church. On Sunday morning at 9 o clock, 
the Bishop preached in the Pettah, and at 11 o clock con 
ducted the ordination service at Nellore, preaching from the 
text Titus, 1,5," That thou shouldest set in order the things 
that are wanting and ordain elders in every city." The Revs. 
Handy, Hoole and Champion were admitted to priests 
orders, and the Revs. T. Good, D. Wood and J. Hensman 
assisted in the laying on of hands. There were 158 Tamil 
communicants. At four in the afternoon the Bishop preached 
at the Portuguese service in the Pettah, and at 5.30 in St: 
John s Church, Chundicully. The following day the Bishop 
held a confirmation in the Court House at Pallai, twenty-five 
miles from Jaffna. 

In 1871 the Rev. D. Wood removed to Colombo for a 
time and Mr. Hensman took the oversight of the Copay 
Training Institution. The following year, the missionary 
reports, The dowry system and caste are still great evils 
among the Christians. A man, professedly Christian, will 
not allow his children to marry those whom he considers of 
lower caste than his own, though everything else is in favour 
of such an alliance. 

Mission work was commenced this year, 1872, in 
Vavunia Valankullam, by the sending of a catechist and 

The Bishop, Dr. Jermyn, paid his first visit to Jaffna in 
June of that year. Much evangelistic work was carried on 
by the Jaffna clergy and hundreds of Scripture portions sold. 
One woman offered a quantity of thread for a gospel, another 
two leaves of tobacco, whilst a cooly woman on an estate 
begged her employer to pay a penny in advance out of her 
hire for the day, and bought a scripture portion with it. An 
interesting series of meetings was held in connection with a 
party of Christians from Tanjore, known as the Lyrical 
Preachers, and blessing resulted. 


On December 24, 1874, the Rev. J. D. Simmons, who had 
previously been fourteen years in the Tinnevelly Mission, 
arrived at Nellore. Mr. Wood returned to Jaffna in 1875, 
and in 1878 the Rev. E. Blackmore was stationed in Chundi- 
cully, taking the place of Mr. Wood who had been transferred 
to Colombo. 

Mr. Blackmore died on October 24 of the following year. 
In 1878 there were thirty-eight schools for boys and fourteen 
for sirls, with 2,152 boys and 420 girls, and three-fourths of 
the four pastors stipends were paid by the Christians, of whom 
there were 485 adults and 285 children. 

In December, 1880, the Rev. G. T. Fleming arrived, and the 
following year on July 17, the Rev. E. Hoole who had been a 
faithful and successful worker passed away in his fifty-second 
year. Mr. Hoole s father was the founder and proprietor of a 
temple dedicated to the goddess Amman, one of the wives of 
Siva. Every parental effort was directed towards the training 
of his three sons for their duties as temple-masters. The 
father s greatest ambition was to see his elder son growing in 
favour with the gods, but one day he received a great shock, 
when he had left him in charge of the household gods with 
strict injunctions as to the quantity of food and flowers to be 
offered. The boy prepared the offerings and presented them 
to the images, but after a time, seeing they had not partaken 
of the food, he expostulated, and threatened them. He then 
took a hammer and smashed the gods to pieces. He had 
once before seen an image of Pulliar, which had been sold for 
seven shillings and sixpence by a Brahman to a missionary 
who wanted to send the idol to England. This had also 
helped to undermine his faith. In 1837 he was baptized and 
became a Wesleyan minister. The mind of the younger 
brother was influenced by the example of the elder, and, re 
nouncing his right to the temple, he openly professed 
Christianity and was baptized by the name of Elijah Hoole. 


An In Memoriani notice in one of the papers referred to him 
as a model pastor, profound scholar and a speaker with few 
equals. Mrs. Hoole who had been a true helpmate died on 
August 26, 1906, in her seventieth year. 

The Rev. E. M. Griffith was transferred to Jaffna in 
February, 1882. In 1884 the Rev. J. Hensman, and in May, 
1885, the Rev. J. P. Handy, died, both faithful and good 
men. The Revs. J. Niles and J. Backus were ordained in 


In 1888 during the month of March, Colonel Oldham and 
the Rev. G. C. Grubb conducted a Mission in Jaffna, when 
there were direct conversions, a great awakening among 
professing Christians and a great spiritual refreshing. 

On October 15, 1889, the foundation stone of the church at 
Pallai was laid, which was opened on November 30, 1895, 
and dedicated to St. Andrew. 

On March 13, 1890, the Rev. E. M. Griffith died and the 
Rev. J.I. Pickford was appointed to succeed him. 

On March 24, 1892, the Rev. J. Niles died. Few have 
realized more fully than he did the responsibilities of the 
pastor s office. The people and district committed to his 
charge were always uppermost in his thoughts. 

The Nellore Girls Boarding School continued to flourish 
and with 101 pupils it was necessary to erect additional 
buildings, whilst the English school at Copay had a hundred 
pupils, the fees and government grant meeting all expenses. 

On Sunday, December 31, 1893, an ordination was held 
entirely in Tamil in Christ Church, when the Revs. G. Daniel, 
A. Matthias, S. Morse and C. T. Williams were admitted to 
deacons orders. A confirmation was held the same day at 
Nellore when thirty-two candidates were confirmed. 

Four women missionaries, Misses Heaney, Saul, Paul 
and Case were appointed to the district about this time. On 
January 15, 1896, a Girls English High School was opened 


at Chundiculiy under the management of Mrs. J. Carter and 
during the first year there were thirty-nine pupils. Miss 
Spreat assisted in the school for a few months but returned to 
England and died there. Miss Goodchild became Principal in 
1898 and Mrs. Carter, the founder, whose ability, earnest zeal 
and loving sympathy had won all hearts, died at Jaffna on 
June 8, 1899. Seventy-three girls were now in the school and 
Miss Payne arrived to assist. Eleven of the pupils were 
confirmed the following year. At the first government exami 
nation, forty-two girls out of the forty-six presented passed. 
In September 1904, Miss Goodchild went on furlough and her 
place was taken by Miss S. L. Page who had been helping in 
the work since May. Two Sivite pupils were baptized that 
year and there were 120 pupils, including fifty-three boarders. 
A Christian Endeavour Society and a monthly consecration 
meeting were started. Four years later there were 150 pupils, 
and new schoolrooms and dormitories were erected. Miss 
.Whitney acted as Principal until Miss Page returned from 
furlough in December 1910. In 1914 there were 214 pupils, 
about half of whom were boarders. The government grant 
earned was six times as much as that earned at the first 
examination. Six girls passed the Junior and three the 
Senior Cambridge Locals. Fifteen girls were confirmed. 
On October 13, 1915, Bishop Copleston opened the new 
Kindergarten room, which had cost Rs. 2,100, the government 
contributing Rs. 600 of the amount. The school was also 
registered under the new government regulations as efficient 
and entitled to receive a block grant yearly. 

In 1896 a church was built at Pallai at a cost of Rs. 1 1,000. 
In 1863 Mr. John Backus, a catechist, who was afterwards 
ordained in 1885, had been sent to the district, his instructions 
from the missionaries being, Travel east and west, north and 
south, exercise your own discretion prayerfully and fix upon a 
centre. He made Pallai his head-quarters, putting up a hut, 


twenty feet by twelve, one half of which served as a school 
room, and the other half as a bed and dining room. Sir 
William Twynam gave a piece of land, and soon a better 
school and house were built. Mr. Backus continued his 
energetic work till 1903, during which time the church and 
eleven schools were opened. 

In May, 1897, the Rev. Hugh Horsley took charge of the 
district work. There were at that time seven ordained 
pastors, three women missionaries, fifteen catechists and 
readers, seven bible women, 1,423 Christians, 637 communi 
cants, sixty-seven schools and 3,234 scholars. Mr. Horsley 
in his report for the year says, If we may judge by the atten 
dance at church and at the Holy Table, the spiritual life is 
certainly up to the average of that in England. Family 
prayer is the order of the day in many houses. Considerable 
interest has been shown in the restoration of some of the 

A schoolmaster and catechist of many years standing, Mr. 
C. Bartlett, died this year. He and his brother being con 
verted about the same time, vindicated their strong convic 
tion of the truth of Christianity, by demolishing the heathen 
temple that was in their garden and was conducted under the 
management of their parents. They were the means also of 
leading their father, brother, and sisters, to Christ. The 
secretary of the Nellore Church Committee, Mr. Alexander 
Bailey, died this year. At his funeral, Sir William Twynam 
a former Government Agent of the Province, a friend and 
staunch supporter of mission work, said He was always a 
steady man and reliable. 

The Nellore Girls Boarding School under Mrs. and Miss 
Horsley continued to be a bright spot. One of the girls gave 
a rupee to the church fund, saying that she had worked 
during the holidays at plaiting coconut leaves and had 
brought her earnings. The Rev. G. Daniel mentions an 


aged woman who had heard the Gospel for twenty-eight 
years, and had at last yielded herself to the power of the Word 
of God. The Rev. J. Backus mentions the death of an old 
Christian, who was well known as the Bishop s good old 
man. He was baptized late in life and at the confirmation 
service he was so ready with his answers to certain questions 
put by the Bishop, that the Bishop s curiosity was aroused, 
and he asked Who is that good old man, who was so ready 
with his answers ? Although he lived four miles from the 
nearest church, he was always among the first at the 

In 1901 a church was erected in the heart of the Wanni 
at Vavunia, under the superintendence of the Rev. A. 
Matthias. The same year, Mr. Charles Wadsworth, whose 
name will be long remembered with affection and esteem, 
especially at Copay, where he worked for forty years as Head 
master of the Training Institution, was called to his rest. A 
large hall was built at Copay as a memorial to him and is 
known as the Wadsworth Memorial Hall. The founda 
tion stone was laid by the Bishop and, on July 10, 1912, the 
Hall was opened by him. 

Miss E. G. Beeching, who had previously worked in the 
N.-W. America Mission, arrived at Copay this year. In 
February, 1902, Mr. Horsley was obliged to return to 
England owing to failure of health, and the Rev. J.I. Pickford 
filled the gap, until the appointment of Rev. W. J. Hanan 
in August. The Rev. G. Champion also retired from active 

The following year the Rev. C. T. Williams left Copay to 
work at Anuradhapura, and the Rev. A. Matthias succeeded 
him. Mr. Matthias had spent thirty-one years in Vavunia. 
When he first went there, there were no Christians, schools 
nor church ; when he left, there were seventy Christians, 
three schools and a church which was designed by him and 


built under his superintendence, partly with his own hands, 
Mrs. Hanan was now in charge of the Nellore Boarding 
School with ninety-two pupils. Miss Case reports that in 
1903 the biblewomen paid 7,536 visits to houses and read 
the Bible, and taught twenty-two women to read. 

In August, 1905, Mr. Hanan went on furlough, Mr. Pickford 
took charge of the district and Miss A. T. Board of the 
Boarding School. The Rev. A. Matthias commenced branches 
of the Gleaners Union and the Y. M. C. A. in his pastorate, 
and Mr. Backus, who was now at Nellore, mentions sewing 
classes, prayer meetings, moonlight services and Sunday 
schools as being vigorously worked in his parish. The Rev. 
J. D. Sattianadhan was ordained priest on Trinity Sunday, 
1906, and the same year Miss E. S. Young took charge of 
the women s work. Mr. and Mrs. Hanan returned in 1907, 
and the foundation stone of a new church was laid at 
Tanniuttu, a village in the Wanni, which was dedicated by 
the Bishop in 1913. 

The Jaffna Missionary z\ssociation at this time was main 
taining four workers in out-of-the-way places, the President 
of the Association being Mr. James Hensman, a son of the 
first Tamil ordained for C.M.S. work in Jaffna. 

In 1909 Mr. Hanan moved to Copay in order better to 
supervi c e the Training Institution, Miss Young went to 
Nellore, and Miss Henrys arrived to superintend the Boarding 
School. The Rev. S. Morse died on September 8, after forty 
years work, the Rev. T. D. Sattianadhan was transferred to 
the Tamil Cooly Mission, and Mr. S. Somasundaram was 
ordained to the diaconate on June 29, at Nellore. The Rev. 
G. T. Weston arrived to assist Mr. Hanan, and Mr. N. G. 
Nathaniel was ordained. 

The following year, 1910, the Rev. George Champion died. 
He was one of the oldest Tamil Christians in Ceylon, having 
been born on October 1, 1824. In 1844 he became a teacher 


at Copay, in 1865 was ordained deacon, and in 1870 admitted 
to priests orders. For twenty-five years he was in charge of 
Kokuvil, where he built the church. His record was one 
of fifty-eight years of active service for the Master. 

Mr. Backus in his annual report of this year, mentions a 
sad case of apostasy of a mother and her three sons and three 
daughters, who openly denied Christ on Good Friday in a 
heathen temple. The mother many years before had become 
a Christian in order to be married, and apostatised in order 
to marry her daughters to heathen men. 

The Rev. Jacob Thompson had charge of the Jaffna 
District throughout 1911 until the Rev. W. J. Hanan re 
turned in May 1912. Miss Whitney towards the close of the 
year took charge of the Nellore school. About this time 
work was begun at Mankulam, a large convict settlement in 
the Wanni. 

In 1913 the district had three superintending missionaries, 
namely, from January to March, the Rev. W. J. Hanan, from 
April to September, the Rev. J. Ilsley, and from September 
25 to the end of the year, the Rev. A. E. Dibben. 

It was decided this year to withdraw the European mis 
sionary and to hand over the greater part of the pastoral, 
evangelistic, and vernacular educational work to the various 
committees of the Tamil Churches. 

In the Chundicully Pastorate, which includes work in the 
Island of Mandaitivu, the Incumbent was the Rev. S. S. 
Somasundaram. The Christians numbered 541, communicants 
246 and vernacular schools nine. The Nellore-Kokuvil 
Pastorate was in charge of the Rev. J. Backus. The Christians 
numbered 359, communicants 197, and vernacular schools 17 
with 1,288 children. 

On July 15, 1913, Mr. Backus celebrated his fiftieth year 
of service in connection with the C.M.S. The Bishop offi 
ciated at the Holy Communion, and eighty-two friends of the 


pastor partook of the Sacrament with him. There was a 
Thanksgiving Service in the afternoon, followed by a social 
gathering at Which Sir William Twynam presided. 

In 1915 the Rev. A. Matthias retired from the Incumbency 
of the Copay Pastorate, and in his last report says, The 
Christians number 374, communicants 161 and vernacular 
schools thirteen with 919 scholars. The starting of a 
Christian Union greatly helped the congregation. 

The Fev. C. T. Williams was appointed pastor on the 
retirement of Mr. Matthias, thus returning to the scene 
of his former labours. At the beginning of the year 
Miss A. M. Tisdall took charge of the Nellore Boarding 
School receiving valuable help from Miss Findlay who 
volunteered to accompany her to Jaffna. There were 
then ninety-four pupils attending the school, of whom 
seven belonged to the training class and seventeen to 
the industrial class. Sixty-two were Christians and thirty- 
two Sivites. 

The chief event in the year 1916, in the Jaffna mission, 
was the amalgamation of the Training Schools for vernacular 
teachers. Hitherto each of the three Protestant Missions 
had a training school of its own, the results from each being 
poor, yet each Mission was reluctant to give up its own 
school. The question reached a climax when the Govern 
ment proposed to establish a well-equipped training school on 
secular lines, which would have ruined all three. It was then 
decided to amalgamate, and the Government agreeing that 
this should be done at the C.M.S. training school at Copay, 
necessary buildings and equipment were procured. It is 
believed that this combination will result in increased effici 
ency and economy, and at the same time form an outward 
and visible sign of the inward and spiritual unity which binds 
together the Missions of North Ceylon. As a part of the 
scheme sanctioned by Government, Hindu students also are 


admitted to a share in the secular parts of the teaching, but 
they are housed in a separate hostel of their own quite apart 
from the mission compound. 


In the year 1823, an English Seminary for the higher 
education of Tamil youths was opened at Nellore by the Rev* 
J. Knight and in 1825 was in charge of the Rev. W. Adley. 
The primary aim of the school was to bring forward agents 
for mission work. It had, on an average, thirty boys, select 
ed from the day schools, who were boarded, clothed and 
educated free. The pupils were required to attend public 
worship and other religious services, the Bible was made the 
most prominent subject of study, and a good secular educa 
tion was also given. 

In 1841 the seminary was removed to Chundicully and 
in 1851 as a boarding establishment it was abolished. From 
its foundation to its close, upwards of two hundred lads 
passed through the regular course, and seventy became con 
verts to Christianity. From 1851 it was called the Chundi 
cully Seminary, and carried on without a boarding depart 
ment, the pupils paying fees from one shilling to eight shillings 
a quarter. A government grant-in-aid was received until 
1862, when, because of the introduction of restrictions upon 
Scriptural teaching, the grant was relinquished. The school 
was divided into six classes, and the first of these was for 
boys preparing for Matriculation in the Madras University, 
to which the school was affiliated. In 1867 the only two 
Jaffna youths who were successful in this examination were 
pupils of the school. About this time the pupils numbered 

One day a Brahmin brought his son to be admitted. The 
Principal said to him, We teach the Bible and I .shall make 
a Christian of him if I can. The Brahmin replied, I know 


it, the Bible precepts are good for a son to learn, and as to 
his becoming a Christian, the Christian religion is good ; it is 
better than Hinduism. If he wishes to become a Christian, 
he may, but I would rather he did not, at least before I die. 

The headmasters up to this date had been Mr. W. Santiagoe, 
1841-48, Mr. J. Phillips, 1848-53, and Mr. R. Williams, 

In a Retrospect of the Past, written fifty years after by 
an old boy, Mr. F. R. Bartholomeusz, we read, The working 
of the Chundicully school was under the immediate eye of 
Mr. Robert Williams. His sternness was dreaded, but with 
a stout heart he possessed a winsome mind, tact, and ability. 

The Rev. R. Pargiter took charge of the school in 1846, 
built the old hall in 1861 and retired in 1866. In 1872 the 
number of pupils was 220 and the following year, the Governor 
of Ceylon, Sir W. H. Gregory, visited the school. It pursued 
the even tenor of its way and in 1885 the Principal, the 
Rev. G. T. Fleming, gave an encouraging report, showing that 
it had done well in scholastic work, and was the means of 
spiritual profit to many of the scholars. The following year 
the Headmaster, Mr. J. Ewarts, who was an able man and 
an earnest Christian, passed away. During the Michaelmas 
vacation about a dozen of the elder students, members of the 
Y.M.C.A., made an evangelistic tour in Mundativu, a large 
island in the lagoon. 

The year 1891 was the Jubilee of the school and to mark 
the event the new name of St. John s College was given to 
the old Chundicully Seminary, the Rev. J. W. Fall being 
Principal at the time. The same year, three students passed 
the Calcutta Entrance examination and three the Cambridge 
Local. The Headmaster, the Rev. C. C. Handy, a son of 
the late Rev. J. P. Handy of Nellore, was ordained in May. 
The number of boarders increased from nine to forty, and 
an annexure was built to accommodate more. In 1894 




Mr. .Godwin Arulpragasam, who had served the College 
faithfully for fifteen years, died. 

In 1895 the Rev. J. Carter, the Principal writes, Both as 
Chundicully Seminary and as St. John s College, this school 
has done good work in Jaffna. In 1899 the number of pupils 
had risen to 397, with a staff of fifteen Tamil masters assisting 
the Principal, the Rev. R. W. Ryde, who had arrived in 
August and continued till July, 1900, when he was succeeded 
by the Rev. Jacob Thompson. 

Mr. Thompson a few months later writes, When I took 
charge, the College buildings were still in a state of pictures 
que ruin, while the walls of the boarding house were support 
ed only by the rafters that had fallen from the roof of the other 
building. The students were being taught, some on the narrow 
verandah of the boarding house, some in the vestry of the 
church, others in the village girls school, and even the shade 
of a large tree had been utilized. By October of the follow 
ing year, a new boarding house, a new hall with class-rooms 
and library, and a new dining hall had been built, and many 
other improvements effected. Above Rs. 10,000 were spent 
on the buildings. The Government Inspector of Schools for 
the province reported I have just been looking round the 
new buildings, which are now complete, not only externally 
but internally. In accommodation and furnishing they are 
models of taste, tidiness and comfort. The influence of 
beautiful surroundings, apart from positive training, will, I 
feel certain, tend to raise the tone of the school. 

In addition to the College, Mr. Thompson was responsible 
for a branch English school at Copay, with 150 boys (which 
was enlarged in 1903) and the Chaplaincy of Christ Church 
in the Pettah. Mr. Thompson went on furlough in Septem 
ber, 1904, and the Rev. W. J. Hanan took charge till August 
of the following year, when he handed over to the Rev. J. I. 
Pickford. Mr. Thompson returned at the end of the year, 


and in 1906 there were 539 scholars in the college and 

Three men volunteered for training for Orders, one of these 
the son of the proprietor of one of the most popular temples. 
He had sacrificed his influential position in order to become a 
Christian and after taking his degree at Calcutta had been a 
master at the College. The government grant for the two 
schools had steadily increased from Rs. 1,300, in 1900, to 
Rs. 4,600 in 1907. 

The following year the College lost by death the services 
of the Rev. C. C. Handy, who for nineteen years had worked 
with manifest unselfishness for the good of the students and 
people. During Mr. Handy s illness the Rev. and Mrs, 
A. M. Walmsley gave assistance in the College, and Mr. 
T. H. Crossette was appointed headmaster. 

Twenty-two boys passed the Cambridge Locals, one of 
whom obtained honours, with distinction in Logic. This b >y 
was a grandson of Mr. Phillips who sixty years before was- 
headmaster of the school. 

In 1909 the premises were further enlarged by an addition 
to the playground, the gift of the Old Boys Association, in 
memory of the Rev. C. C. Handy. The Senior Mathematical 
master, Mr. S. S. Somasundaram, was also ordained this year. 
The number of pupils had now reached 600. 

During 1910 the Rev. Jacob Thompson was absent from 
Ceylon for eight months, during which time the College was 
under the management of a Tamil, Mr. T. H. Crossette, and 
the number of students and the discipline were fully maintained. 
On June 21, 1911, the foundation stone of a new library 
was laid, the entire cost of erecting and furnishing having been 
given by Dr. J. M. Handy, in memory of his brother. In 
March, 1913, the library was opened by Mrs. J. M. Handy. 
The religious work of the College was being carried on 
quietly under the auspices of the College Y.M.C.A., Prayer 


meetings were conducted every Tuesday, Bible classes on 
Sunday mornings, Gospel meetings on Saturdays, and a Bible 
class on Sunday afternoons. A Scripture Union with ninety- 
six members had been started and a Communicants Union 
met monthly. 

In 1914 the Vice- Principal visited Singapore and Kuala 
Lumpur, and collected from the Tamil settlers about Rs. 9,000, 
with which a large hall and four airy class rooms were erected. 
The College was also re-organized into distinct schools, one 
providing a sound commercial education, and the other an, 
education preparatory to University work. The staff was 
considerably strengthened and a laboratory added. 

In 1915 the Director of Education recognized the uniformly 
excellent results of the Junior School by granting a first class 
certificate to Mr. Williams, the headmaster. 

In 1916 there were over a thousand boys on the rolls of 
St. John s College and its branches, Copai, Urumparai and 
Kaithady, with fifty-five masters and one hundred and thirty 



THE Rev. and Mrs. Robert Mayor landed at Galle on 
June 29, 1818, and were received with great kindness by the 
chaplain, the Rev. J. M. S. Glenie. Shortly after, Mr. Mayor 
writes to the C.M.S., It is not their readiness to welcome 
the light of the Gospel which must be your inducement to 
send out more labourers, but their great need of instruction, 
and the positive duty of a Christian nation to communicate 
the knowledge of the only Saviour to all its subjects. We 
have free access to the people, and their prejudices against 
Christianity are not deeply rooted ; they are willing to have 
their children taught to read, and these children have an 
intellect capable of the highest cultivation. 

On October 20, Mr. Mayor visited several villages on the 
banks of the Gindara river by boat. At Telikada, six miles 
from Galle, the government schoolmaster with his scholars and 
the headmen, drew up in line and saluted him with three 

The next place visited was Baddegama, twelve miles from 
Galle, where he was met by the Mudaliyar, the chief govern 
ment officer, and the Government School boys. Mr. Mayor 
writes, The situation of Baddegama appears to be exceed 
ingly convenient for the residence of a missionary. The 
people, though nominally Christians, are really Buddhists. 
The Mudaliyar is desirous that I should reside there, and offers 
to raise a subscription for the erection of a Church and School. 
The Archdeacon would, I believe, very much approve of my 
residing among the natives. 


The next day, Mr. Mayor proceeded up the river to Mapa- 
lagama, where about 800 people met him, and out of this 
number there were only ten who had riot been baptized. Mr. 
Mayor again writes, The Dutch have done much injury to the 
cause of Christianity by disqualifying all persons from in 
heriting property who have not been baptized. In consequence 
of this law, every one, whether he worships Buddha or the devil, 
is eager to be baptized. On his return journey, the headmen 
of Nagoda offered to build a school within six days and fill it 
with children. At Baddegama he again preached to about 
150 people, on our Lord s feeding the five thousand. 

On his return to Galle, after consultation with the other 
missionaries and with the approbation of Government, Mr. 
Mayor decided to settle in Baddegama. Accordingly on 
August 14, 1819, he took up his abode in a small house in 
Baddegama. Government gave a free grant of land and a 
substantial house was finished in November. The name 
Baddegama is derived from the Sinhalese Bat denna 
gamma, or rice supplying village. It is recorded that the 
monks of Totagamuwa temple subsisted on the rice which was 
supplied from this village by o der of the Sinhalese kings. 

About the year A.D. 1240 a bridge of 120 cubits span was 
in existence over the river at Baddegama, the same having 
been constructed by the minister Patiraja Deva, who was 
appointed Governor over the Southern provinces by King 
Parakrama II. The bridge was to connect the road from 
Bentota to Baddegama via Elpitiya. Near to Elpitiya 
Patiraja founded a college, and the ancient Sinhalese Gram 
mar, Sidathsangarawa, was written there, and the locality is 
still known by the name of Patiraja Kanda. 

The hill on which the mission house was built was named 
Church Hill. It presents a delightful prospect of a winding 
river, a fruitful valley, well -watered fields and distant mount 
ains. A large school-room of stone was next built, capable of 


holding 250 people, and was used for public worship till the 
church was built. Mr. Glenie having removed to Colombo, 
the Lieutenant Governor asked Mr. Mayor to undertake duty 
at Galle until another chaplain could be provided. 

On October 26, 1819, the Rev. Benjamin Ward, on account 
of ill-health, moved from Calpentyn to Baddegama, and 
preached his first sermon in Sinhalese, ten months after 

On February 14, 1821, the foundation stone of the church 
was laid by Don Abraham Dias Abeysinghe, Guard 
Mudaliyar of Galle, in the presence of a great concourse of 
people. The chief headman of the district, who had previous 
ly sent a donation of fifty-six dollars, was present and the 
collection amounted to 2Q. Sir Robert Brownrigg, the 
Governor, expressed his approbation by a public grant and a 
private donation. The Revs. Mayor, Ward and Glenie 
addressed the people. Rice and curry were provided for all 
who chose to partake and 350 children were feasted. 

The difficulty of erecting the church may be judged from 
the fact that 700 Ibs. of gunpowder were required to blast the 
rock for the foundation. The church is a substantial stone 
building, eighty-four feet by forty-three, with a square tower. 
The roof is supported by twelve round iron-wood pillars, thirty 
feet high, each cut out of a single tree. Most of the wood 
used was either iron- wood or teak. A deep verandah surrounds 
the church. Before the workmen commenced each morning, 
they assembled under a shed, and one of the missionaries 
offered a prayer and gave a short address. The church was 
opened on March 11, 1824, by the Archdeacon. In the large 
congregation were the chief government officials, and Sir 
Richard Ottley, the Chief Justice, who presented the Commun 
ion plate. 

Mr. Mayor writes, The Church will remain, I doubt not, 
a monument to future ages of the day when the Sun of 


Righteousness first rose upon this village. It is the first 
church which has ever been erected in the interior for the sole 
benefit of the Sinhalese. 

Before commencing the building of the church, Mr. Mayor 
asked to be relieved ot the garrison duty at Galle. The mis 
sionaries had also undertaken the superintendence of forty 
government schools in the Galle and Matara districts. Mr. 
Ward writes, These schools will give us access to many 
thousand natives; they will increase our influence, and will 
afford us opportunities of preaching the Gospel. 

Mr. Mayor, at one time when there was no medical 
officer in Galle, discharged the important functions of that 

The following extract from Mr. Mayor s diary is interesting : 
August 6, 1822 Left for Belligama. Here preached to a 
large concourse. Seventy children present, twelve of whom 
read the New Testament. Fifty boys repeated their 
Catechism. Went to Denipittya and married twenty-three 

August 7 Proceeded to Mirisse and preached upon the 
<l fall of man." Married four couples. 

August 8 Visited the Matara School after preaching ; 
examined scholars. Married thirty-eight couples. Then on 
to Kottecagodde, where I preached and married eleven 

Mr. Ward gives the following instance of the influence of 
caste. On Sunday, many came to have their banns of 
marriage published. By virtue of a late regulation of govern 
ment, low-caste women are authorized to wear jackets a 
privilege, which the system of caste had hitherto denied them. 
Three of these women appeared in the congregation, each 
decently clothed in a white cloth jacket. When I entered the 
church, I perceived the school-girls and other women in the 
utmost confusion, apparently resolved not to take their seats. 


Some of them went oat. The three women who had given so 
much offence sat at the opposite end of the building. I ex 
postulated with the congregation on the impropriety of their 
conduct, explained to them the nature and tendency of our 
religion, and reasoned with them upon the childishness of 
taking offence at others, for wearing the same kind of clothing 
as themselves. 

Mr. Ward also writes, There exists prejudice even be 
tween individuals of the same caste, and these expect a distinc 
tion in seats. We have hitherto found it necessary not to 
indulge them with an elevated seat, but with a distinct one. A 
bench is placed either in the front or on one side, on which 
the headmen and higher families sit. The Mudaliyar is yet 
more distinguished by sitting on a chair. 

The missionaries resolutely set their faces against the pre 
valent abuse of the sacred ordinance of Baptism, which had 
led to the degradation of the Christian name, and Mr. Ward 
writes, The country is full of baptized persons, who worship 
Buddha and the devil. We have resolved to baptize the 
children of only those persons who attend the public worship 
of the true God. Seven schools were commenced with an 
average attendance of 159 scholars. A school for girls was 
commenced in the verandah of the mission house, conducted 
by Mrs. Mayor, who writes The average number of girls is 
forty. They sit on mats, and are taught to read and sew. 
A portion of Scripture is read and explained. To encourage 
them to attend regularly, we give them clothes twice a 

Experience taught the missionaries to view appearances of 
success with caution. In the case of many apparently 
genuine seekers after truth, the hope of worldly honour and 
emolument appears to have been the real inducement. The 
missionaries received the following letter from the Secretary 
of the C.M.S., brother-in-law of Mr. Mavor : 



July 19, 1824. 

We anticipate much blessing on your work, because the 
Lord has so completely shown you your own helplessness, 
and is leading you to look more simply to His sufficiency. 
He will never disappoint those who trust in Him. We 
rejoice to see your zealous exertions in preaching the word. 
It is your grand weipon against the enemy. You probably 
somewhat under-rate education, but you do not under-rate 
preaching to the adults, and we pray God that there may be 
such a manifest blessing on your labours, as may be a great 
encouragement to your brethren everywhere. Go on in the 
strength of the Lord. We rejoice in your labours, and sym 
pathize in your sorrows. You are our joy and comfort, and 
may the Divine Spirit be poured out more and more upon 
you and your work, and the Lord Jesus be constantly magni 
fied in you. 


The church was consecrated by Bishop Reginald Heber 
of the occasion of his visit to Ceylon in 1825. The following 
is an extract from the Bishop s Indian Journal : 

September 24, 1825. Long before day-break we were on 
our way to Baddegama. At Amlangoda we breakfasted, and 
at Kennery left the mam road, and wound through very 
narrow paths and over broken bridges, till we had arrived at 
the river which we had first crossed on leaving Galle, but 
some miles higher up. 

The country then improved into great beauty, and at the 
end of about two miles we came within sight of a church on 
the summit of a hill, with the house of one of the missionaries, 
Mr. Mayor, immediately adjoining it, and that of Mr. Ward 
on another eminence close to it, forming altogether a land 
scape of singular and interesting beauty. We ascended by 


a steep road to Mr. Mayor s where we found the families of the 
two missionaries and some of our friends from Galle, awaiting 
our arrival. At the foot of this hill, the river we had recently 
crossed winds through what has the appearance of a richly 
dressed lawn, while all around rise mountains, one above the 
other. On our right was the church, a very pretty building. 
The whole scene was peculiarly interesting. Here we found 
two very young men, with their wives and children, separated 
from all European society by many miles of country, impass 
able, save in two directions, even to palanquins, devoting 
themselves entirely to the service of their Maker, in spreading 
His religion among the heathen and in the education of their 
families. The two families, indeed, seem to form but one 
household living together in Christian fellowship, and with no 
other object but to serve God, and do their duty to their 
neighbour. I have seldom been more gratified, I may say, 
affected. Mr. Mayor who is son to our neighbour at Shaw- 
bury (Rev. John Mayor) was originally brought up in the 
medical line, his surgical and medical knowledge are invalu 
able to himself and his neighbours and even during the short 
time we were his guests, we found their use in a sudden attack 
our little girl had, brought on by fatigue and over-exertion. 

The Bishop consecrated the church and afterwards the 
burial ground on the morning of September 25. Almost all 
the European residents from Galle and a great number of 
natives were assembled to witness the ceremony. The 
Bishop preached from Genesis xxviii. 16 and 17 and in the 
afternoon confirmed thirteen persons, all of whom, save three, 
were Sinhalese. In the evening the Bishop examined some 
of the scholars. 

September 26, 1825. We left Baddegama in palanquins 
and made our way along the banks of the river, which was 
too much swollen by recent heavy rains to admit of our going 
in boats. Indeed, the track was in some parts covered with 



water so deep that it nearly entered my palanquin and was 
very fatiguing to the poor bearers. In the afternoon we 
arrived at Galle. 

The Bishop, writing to his mother on the following day 
from Galle, says, There are also some very meritorious mis 
sionaries in the Island. One of them, Mr. Mayor, together 
with another Shropshire man, Mr. Ward, has got together a 
very respectable congregation of natives as well as a large 
school. He has also built a pretty church, which I conse 
crated last Sunday, in one of the wildest and most beautiful 
situations I ever saw. 

Writing to the Rev. J. Mayor, Vicar of Shawbury, Bishop 
Heber says Mrs. Heber and I had the pleasure of passing 
the best part of three days with Mr. and Mrs. Mayor, in their 
romantic home at Baddegama, where we also found his 
colleague Mr. Ward, with his wife and family, in perfect 
health and contented cheerfulness. They are active, zealous, 
well-informed and orderly clergymen, devoted to the instruc 
tion and help of their heathen neighbours, both enjoying a 
favourable report, I think I may say without exception, from 
the Governor, public functionaries, and in general, from all 
the English in the colony whom I have heard speak of them. 

Bishop Heber received his home call on April 3, 1826, at 
Trichinopoly, in South India. 

Owing to failing health Messrs. Mayor and Ward left for 
England in April, 1828. Before they left, a joint report of 
their work was issued in which they say, The Sunday 
morning service is attended by about 100 children and 
seventy adults. The Litany is used in the native tongue. 
In the evening, prayers are read in English and an exposition 
interpreted into Sinhalese. 

A stone tablet in the church has the following inscription : 

In memory of the Rev. Robert Mayor, the founder of 
this station, and by whose exertions this Church was built 


who after nearly ten years of faithful labour in this country 
was compelled by the loss of his health to return to England 
where he afterwards became successively Rector of Coppen- 
stall and Vicar of Acton in the county of Chester, at which 
last place he died in perfect peace on the 14th of July 1846, 
aged fifty-five. His friends in Ceylon have erected this tablet 
as a tribute of their affectionate remembrance of his character 
and labour. 

The Rev. George Conybeare Trimnell and Mrs. Trimnell 
took charge in September 1826 and soon afterwards the Rev. 
George Steers Faught and Mrs. Faught were associated with 
them. On Easter Sunday, 1830, the first adult convert from 
Buddhism in connection with the C.M.S. in the district was 
baptized, receiving the name of Edward Bickersteth. 

In 1833 Mr. Trimnell reports, The schools are in a 

flourishing state, the girls school having an attendance of 115. 

Where all or nearly all, a few years ago, were unlettered, 

there ard now many who can read ; where there was nothing 

to read but a few Buddhist books or foolish songs written on 

the leaf of a tree, there are now hundreds of printed copies of 

the word of God ; where there was no sound of the Gospel it 

is now certainly preached and there are hundreds who hear it 

every Lord s day. Thus far all is well, but we who cannot 

be satisfied with a change in externals, or without an evidence 

of spiritual life among the people, and who have seen 

things almost in their present state for years, are often 

much discouraged. He adds as a chief cause of sorrow 

there is scarcely any evidence of any one being really 


On the return to England of Mr. and Mrs. Faught in 1836, 
the Rev. J. Selkirk took charge until the return of Mr. Trim 
nell. : Mr. Selkirk again took up the work after Mr. Trimnell 
left for England in 1838, until set at liberty by the arrival of 
the Rev. and Mrs. H. Powell in January 1839. 


Bishop Corrie of Madras visited Baddegama in 1840 and 
thus writes to the Earl of Chichester : Beautiful Badde 
gama, a Christian watchfire in a very dark night, a Christian 
lighthouse in a very dark place, a cradle of the gospel in a 
heathen land. 

In 1841 the Rev. and Mrs. Charles Greenwood took charge 
and for a few months in 1848 the Rev. and Mrs. Isaiah Wood 
were associated with them. Balapitimodera and Bentota, 
two towns of importance on the coast, were occupied as out- 

In October, 1847, the first Bishop of Colombo, Dr. Chap 
man, visited Baddegama, and writing to the C.M.S. he says, 
My visit to Baddegama for the Confirmation was full of 
interest and encouragement. I was met on the banks of its 
beautiful river by Messrs. Greenwood and Gunasekara, your 
two valued missionaries, and all the catechists and the youths 
of the Seminary, and up the hill, close to the mission house, 
with its English-towered church and English scenery around, 
by Mrs. Greenwood and above sixty children of her native 
girls school. No welcome could have been more characteris 
tic or more pleasing. On the next day the church was filled 
for the Confirmation at eleven o clock. Twenty-three were 
confirmed ; one a poor cripple in limb but not in faith, was 
carried to the Holy Table, and I trust the fullness of the 
blessing conveyed to his heart by faith was not marred by 
the unworthiness of the channel through which it reached 

On June 21, 1850, the Rev. C. Greenwood, aged thirty- 
seven, was drowned while bathing in the river, and his sudden 
removal threw the charge of the station upon the Rev. 
George Parsons, who had been only six months in the 

A clock was placed in the church in memory of Mr. Green 
wood. Mr. Parsons extended the work on the sea coast and 


for some time left Baddegama in charge of the Rev. Abraham 
Gunasekara, taking up his own residence at Bentota. Small 
congregations were collected at Bentota and Balapitimodera, 
but these were formed of nominal Christians, not of converts 
from heathenism ; schools were opened, but the seed sown 
did not yield any visible fruit. At Dodanduwa, however, 
some enquirers presented themselves, and after several 
months of instruction, twelve adults were baptized. 

The Rev. G. Pettitt, the Secretary of the Mission, visited 
Baddegama in April 1850, and thus writes The view from 
Palm Hill, the site of the second mission house, is peculiarly 
beautiful. The eye never rests upon a barren spot, or even 
upon a foot of soil or sandy ground, and all this loveliness is 
perpetual, for there is no winter in Ceylon. There are how 
ever disadvantages connected with this excellence ; it is not 
Paradise after all. It is exceedingly damp, everything 
capable of it becomes mouldy in an incredibly short time, a 
little bodily exertion produces a disagreeable amount of 
perspiration, and the feeling of languor easily creeps over 
the frame, a short pointed grass takes advantage of your 
shortest walk to tease your legs and demands a considerable 
portion of time for its dislodgement, a small leech with a, 
troublesome bite operates without medical prescription, while 
frequent rains either impede your plans of usefulness, or 
drench you in adhering to them. Snakes, centipede s, scor 
pions and other noxious insects abound. From 1859 to 1862 
during Mr. Parson s absence on furlough, the district was 
under the charge of the Rev. A. Gunasekara by whom the 
work was earnestly and faithfully carried on. Mr. Guna 
sekara was born in 1802 and died in 1862. His father 
Bastian Gunasekara who was born in 1773 and died in 1853, 
came to Baddegama from Galle, having been recom 
mended to Mr. Mayor by the Galle Mudaliyar, for the post 
of overseer during the building of the church. A tablet 


to Mr. Gunasekara s memory was placed in the church, 
inscribed as follows : 

He was the first Native Missionary of Baddegama 
where he laboured twenty-three years with zeal and fidelity 
in the Master s service. Deeply sensible of his unworthiness 
and firmly trusting in Jesus his Saviour he joyfully antici 
pated being present with the Lord. 

It is related of Mr. Gunasekara that once as a Buddhist boy 
he went into the temple to offer his evening flower. When he had 
done so, he looked into the idol s face, expecting to see a smile 
of approval, but he noticed that the great eyes stared on with 
out any expression of pleasure in them. He thought therefore 
that so great a god would not condescend to accept a child s 
offering. Soon after a man came in, laid down his flower, 
turned his back and went carelessly away. The boy again 
looked in the idol s face and thought he would see an angry 
frown at this disrespect, but the eyes stared on as before. 
He then began to realize the fact that the image had no life 
in it, and was alike powerless to reward or punish. 

In 1863 the vernacular institution for the training of 
catechists was removed from Cotta to Baddegama, and in the 
following year, an institution for the training of schoolmasters 
was opened under the Rev. S. Coles. These were carried on 
until 1868 when both were transferred to Cotta. 

In November 1863, what is called the Baddegama Contro 
versy began, and several public meetings were held till the 
following February, when they were stopped by order of the 
magistrates. Mr. Parsons writing to the C. M.S. says, The 
spirit of controversy broke out in November last, and though 
I was partly prepared for it, I was slow to believe it would 
become such a serious matter until urged by our people to 
prepare for a fierce contest. The result fully justified their 
anxieties, for never before in Ceylon was there such a mar 
shalling of the enemy against Christianity. The one aim of 


the fifty priests and their two thousand followers who 
assembled here on February 8, was not to defend Buddhism 
but to overthrow Christianity. Encouraged by translations 
from Bishop Colenso s writings, they considered the utter 
defeat of Christianity easy and certain. Knowing the people 
we had to encounter, we felt that our victory would be more 
triumphant and complete, by attacking Buddhism, whilst we 
defended Christianity. It was not, however, till we were 
somewhat advanced in the controversy, that we could fairly 
estimate the difficulties of our position, and day by day ; we 
had to commend ourselves in prayer to God and confide 
in Him for wisdom and direction at every step. On review 
ing the whole controversy, I am thankful for what has taken 
place, and believe the effect upon this district has been 
healthy and encouraging. 

On November 24, 1864, Dr. Claughton, the Bishop, 
consecrated the new church at Balapitimodera, which was 
originally built by Dr. Clarke, a former Police Magistrate of 
the place. The Bishop also held a Confirmation at Badde- 
gama when twenty-four candidates were confirmed. In April 
1866, Mr. Parsons was suddenly removed, by death from fever, 
whilst on a visit to Colombo. Mrs. Parsons who had dili 
gently worked among the girls and women, returned to England 
and died thirty years after in November 1896. A beautiful 
marble tablet was placed to his memory in the church by the 
Christians. The station then came under the superintendence 
of the Rev. E. T. Higgens. During his time the Church 
Council system came into operation, and Baddegama, Balapi- 
tiya and Dodanduwa were formed into separate pastorates 
under a district council. 

In 1869 the Rev. John Allcock took charge, and although 
work had been carried on for fifty years, the Christians only 
numbered 240, of whom sixty-four were communicants, and 
in the eleven schools there were 457 children. Mr. Allcock 


in his first annual report writes, The Church here, like many 
other, is still deficient in apostolic simplicity, earnest convic 
tion, zeal, faith, hope and charity ; yet there are a few who 
earnestly desire to adorn the Gospel of our Lord Jesus 

In 1875 a church was erected at Dodanduwa costing 
Rs. 2,000, and dedicated to the Holy Trinity. 

In 1881 two of the catechists Messrs. A. S. Amarasekara 
and G. B. Perera were ordained deacons and stationed at 
Dodanduwa and Balapitimodera. 

Mr. Allcock was an earnest, simple-minded, good man, full 
of the Holy Ghost, enthusiasm and good works, whose one 
object was to preach the Gospel, in season and out of season. 
The greater part of his time was spent going from village to 
village, sowing the good seed. In one of his reports he 
writer, I do not expect very much good from girls day 
schools. In another, Schools are of little use, we must 
preach more, and again, Preaching and sowing are the best 
means of winning the people. In nearly all his letters he 
mourned over the apathy and indifference of the Sinhalese 
Christians, in not caring for the souls of others. 

In 1881 Dr. Johnson, Metropolitan and Bishop of Calcutta, 
visited Baddegama, and before leaving wrote as follows, I 
visited Baddegama on Monday, February 7, 1881, driving out 
from Galle with the Bishop of Colombo. I addressed a large 
congregation, taking for my subject " The difficulty of getting 
free from bondage and the consequent liability to discourage 
ment." A special service was held later in the day when I 
gave an address to the heathen, endeavouring to draw out the 
contrast between the morality of Buddhism and that of 
Christianity, the latter being based upon our relations with 
the One God, One Father. It seems that here, as in most 
parts of India, the progress is slow, the adult heathen being 
only brought out by ones and two*. The schools are gradually 


exercising an influence and by their means each generation 
must, it may be hoped, show increased results. 

When Mr. Allcock left for England in March 1883, the 
Christians numbered 481, of whom 137 were communicants, 
and the schools contained 1,353 children. 

A few years after, on Mr. Allcock s death from fever in 
the Kandyan country, the sum of Rs. 250 was collected, and 
a large bell placed in the church tower with the inscription 
* In memory of the Rev. John Allcock. 

In November, 1882, the Rev. J. W. Balding was transferred 
from the Kurunegala district to take charge of Baddegama. 
At the close of the following year he writes, What grieves 
me most is that in nearly every village, I find that of 
those who at one time or the other have professed Christ 
and been baptized, many now living carelessly are worse than 
the heathen around, whilst very few of the Christians make the 
slightest endeavour to bring others to a knowledge of the truth. 

In 1884 a stone school chapel was built at Kitulampitiya, 
and in 1885 a similar building at Elpitiya on a piece of land 
given by Mr. Elias Perera, the catechist there. 

In 1886, an Ordination Service was held in Baddegama 
Church, when three deacons were admitted to the priesthood, 
by Dr. R. S. Copleston, Bishop of Colombo. Archdeacon 
Matthew and ten other clergy were present. This was the 
first time that an Ordination had been held in the Sinhalese 
language and in the midst of the people themselves. 

On June 1, 1888, a Boarding School for Sinhalese 
girls was opened by Mrs. Balding, and from its commence 
ment has been a success. Many of the pupils have become 
teachers in village schools. In addition to missionaries 
wives, other European ladies, Miss Binfield, Miss Ursula 
Kriekenbeck, Miss Henry (all three since dead) and Miss 
C. Kerr have given valuable help in the school, whilst Mrs. 
Wirakoon, always called Mistress by the girls and 


a daughter of the late Rev. H. Kannangara, has been the 
invaluable head mistress from the opening day to the present 
time. In May. 1893, a lady missionary* Miss Helen P. Philips? 
late Principal of the Clergy Daughters School at Sydney 
and the first worker sent out by the New South Wales C.M.S. 
Association, was appointed to Dodanduwa, to be joined in 
the following November by Miss E. M. Josolyne. An 
industrial school for boys and girls, where printing, carpentry, 
wood-carving, tailoring and lacemaking were taught, was 

On August 14, 1894, the seventy-fifth anniversary of 
the founding of the Baddegama mission was celebrated. 
Dr. Copleston, the Bishop, and fifteen clergy were present. 
At the morning service, a sermon was preached by the Rev. 
J. de Silva, on the Parable of the Mustard Seed, after which 
the Holy Communion was administered to 205 communicants. 
At mid-day the Rev. S. Coles addressed over 600 children in 
the church, and afterwards a public meeting presided over by 
the Bishop, was held in the English school. In the after 
noon there was a garden party, and in the evening, a lantern 
address on the Holy Land, by Archdeacon de Winton- 
The sum of Rs. 1,250 was given by the people towards the 
renovating of the church. A teak reading desk, lectern and 
pulpit were bought, and a brass offertory dish, alms bags, 
kneelers and an ebony Communion Table were presented. A 
stone tablet with the names of the missionaries who had 
worked in the district, with the text underneath Whose faith 
follow was also placed in the church. 

In November, 1895, two more women missionaries, Miss 
C. N. Luxmoore and Miss M. S. Gedge arrived. 

About this time the district was well supplied with Sinhalese 
clergy, the Rev. James Colombage in Baddegama, the Rev. 
G. B. Perera at Balapitimodera and the Rev. J. P. Kalpage 
at Dodanduwa. 


In 1897 over 700 people attended the service in connec 
tion with the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. In the 
same year fifty girls were presented at the Government 
examination of the Girls Boarding School, obtaining eighty- 
five per cent, of passes and in the Diocesan Religious Exami 
nation fourteen girls obtained prizes, and the school a second 
class certificate. One of the old girls who had gone to India 
as a mission worker, died of cholera this year. On the first 
page of her Bible was found written My mottoes for 1897. 
Holiness unto the Lord. First, suffering, then glory. 

In 1898 Mr. E. J. Carus Wilson, a lay missionary, was 
stationed at Bentota, Miss Townsend at Dodanduwa and Miss 
M. L. Young at Baddegama. 

Mis? L. M. Leslie Melville arrived in 1899, and the Rev. 
G. B. Perera, who had been in Balapitimodera for twenty-one 
years, moved to Baddegama. 

About this period, the Rev. Professor Mayor of St. John s 
College, Cambridge, delivered a lecture on Antipathies of 
race and habit, in which he said, In the Michaelmas term 
I had a proof, interesting to me at least, of the truth of that 
promise, " Cast thy bread upon the waters, and thou shalt 
find it after many days." A Sinhalese knocked at my door. 
He is in holy orders in the English Church, won a scholarship 
at Selwyn College and is reading for the theological tripos 
His first words were " My father was a convert of your 
father." He must have been converted from devil-worship. 
Eighty-one years ago, my father founded a mission-station at 
Baddegama. To the ruin of his health, labouring under a 
tropical sun, he built church and school and parsonage. In 
that village my sister and I were born, in that church she and 
I were baptized. Seventy-one years ago we left Ceylon, 
where Reginald Heber, an old Shropshire friend of my 
father s had visited and blessed his work. My father would 
have hailed that one fruit of his labours as ample reward for 


shattered health and an early grave. My friend had taken 
part in the seventy-fifth anniversary of the mission. 

In December, 1900, Mr. G. A. Purser arrived to take charge 
of the Industrial School at Dodanduwa, and in October, 1901, 
the Rev. J. W. Balding, who had been connected with the 
district for twenty years, moved to Cotta to take charge of 
that station. 

When Mr. Balding left, there were two Sinhalese clergy, 
five biblewomen, 553 Christians, 226 communicants, thirty- 
one schools and 2,110 scholars. The Rev. H. E. Heinekey 
took charge at the end of the year. In 1903 the district 
suffered severe losses in the home calls of the Rev. J. P. 
Kalpage, and of Mr. Baptist Karunaratne (a son-in-law of 
Rev. A. Gunasekara) who had been a mission worker for forty 
years. The Rev. G. B. Perera also left to become a pastor 
in the Cotta district. This year the Buddhists became very 
active in opposing Christian work, and establishing opposition 

The following year Mr. Heinekey reports Christianity 
cannot be said to be in a thriving condition here, converts are 
few, and the best of them seem glad to get away to other 
parts. Thus, there are now only 538 Christians against 653 
in 1901, whilst there are 324 children less in the schools. 

The catechist, Mr. R. T. E. A. Gunatilake was ordained 
deacon in 1904. The same year the much- valued matron of 
the Girls Boarding School, Mrs. Mary Perera, or old Mary 
as she called herself, passed away. For sixteen years she had 
faithfully filled her post, and for many years previously had 
been a valued school-teacher and biblewoman. 

On the resignation of Mr. Heinekey in 1905 the Rev. 
S. M. Simmons was appointed. The Buddhists were now 
building schools of a far more substantial nature, which were 
thronged with children, and in charge of efficient teachers. 
Where there was no active opposition to Christianity, the 


attitude of the Christians was one of utter indifference. The 
Dodanduwa Industrial School continued to flourish, and at the 
Galle Agri- Horticultural Exhibition three prizes were won 
.for carving. 

In 1906 the School Chapel and two schools at Kitulam- 
pitiya were handed over to the incumbent of Galle. 

The following year, Mrs. S. M. Simmons, who had thrown 
herself heart and soul into the work, and won the love and 
admiration of all, was called to higher service, and Mr. 
Simmons went on leave to England for a year, the Rev. 
R. H. Phair taking oversight of the work. Miss E. M. Josolyne 
was at this time in charge of the women s work in the district. 

Miss Henry carried on the work of the school during the 
year 1908, Miss Walker then being located to Baddegama as 

In 1909 the number of schools had fallen to 22 and the 
scholars to 1543. 

Mr. G. A. Purser, who had been to England on furlough, 
returned to Baddegama in 1912, having been ordained, and 
with Mrs. Purser took charge. The following year, he 
laments the dearth of helpers, not a single Ceylonese clergy 
man or lady missionary being in the district. In 1914 the 
Rev. J. P. Ramanayake was stationed at Dodanduwa and in 
1915, Mr. W. B. de Silva, the pastoral catechist, was ordained 
deacon. This year there were four adult and fourteen infant 
baptisms and several enquirers, and twenty-two candidates 
were presented for Confirmation. The Government grant to 
the schools had suffered considerably owing to the continued 
Buddhist opposition. 

Mrs. Purser, who was Principal of the Girls Boarding 
School, reports forty-six girls in the school, and the Inspector 
reported The results of the examination were satisfactory 
and reflect credit on the Lady Principal and her staff. The 
English recitation and writing were both above the average. 


At the Diocesan Scripture Examination the school obtained 
a first-class certificate. There is a branch of the Young 
People s Union in the school and a child is supported in a 
school at Dohnavur. 

Mr. Robert de Silva, who has been connected with the 
Industrial School since its commencement, and is now in 
charge reports, We have sixty-three boys and at the last 
examination the Inspector wrote, " This is a very useful, 
school. The work done is really very good. I am much 
pleased with the work." : The Bishop and Mrs. Copleston 
visited the school, and wrote in the log-book We saw some 
very good carving, one boy shewing real talent. I saw some 
pages of the Gleaner being printed. In September, 1916, 
Miss L. M. Leslie Melville and Miss Wardlaw Ramsay 
returned from England, and the former took up the post of 
Principal of the Girls Boarding School, and the Rev. 
G. A. Purser removed to Dodanduwa, superintending the 
district from that centre. 

In 1918 there were twenty-one schools in the district. 
There were two Sinhalese clergy, t\vo catechists, two bible- 
women, twenty-two male teachers and twenty -three female 
teachers, 662 Christians, of whom 223 were communicants, 
and 1,112 boys and 568 girls in the schools. 



COTTA, or Kotte, about six miles from Colombo, is a place 
famous in the annals of Ceylon as Jayawardhanapura, and at 
the time of the arrival of the Portuguese in A.D. 1505 was 
the capital and residence of the Sinhalese king. Sinhalese 
kings reigned there from A.D. 1378 to 1573. During the 
Dutch rule (164-0 to 1796) the spiritual interests of Cotta and 
ne ghbourhood were not neglected. Cotta, with six adjacent 
villages, formed a parish, having its own pastor, supported 
by Government, and superintended by a Dutch Presbyterian 
clergyman. It had its large and substantial church in Etui 
Cotta, on the site where the C.M.S. girls school now stands, 
well attended, for, with few exceptions, all the inhabitants had 
been baptized and many were communicants. There was 
also a school, with three teachers and a singing master, who 
also led the singing in church. The Dutch minister attended 
periodically from Colombo to perform religious rites and to 
examine the school. 

The post of pastor was for a long time filled by a 
Mr. Philipsz, a Sinhalese gentleman, who had been educated 
and ordained in Holland. There was also a resident 
registrar whose duty was to collect the people for baptism 
and marriage on the periodical visits of a Proponent. On 
such occasions fathers and sons, who had been married for 
years, came to have their wedlock christianized and their 
children and grandchildren baptized. Their names were then 
entered in the Thombuwa, or Register, and a fee of three 
fanams, or three pence, was levied for each entry, in payment 

COTTA 129 

for the registrar s trouble. The following extract from the 
deed conveying the land to the Dutch minister is interesting : 
* On April 23, 1721, the Honourable Isaac Augustin Rumpf, 
ordinary Counsellor of the Dutch Indies and Governor and 
Director of the Island of Ceylon, of his own free will and 
from motives of affection, resolved and thought proper to 
make a present of, for the service and benefit of the new- 
built native Reformed Church at Cotta, a certain garden, his 
property in the hamlet Etui Kotte, to the Rev. Wilhelmus 
Koning, the only officiating minister in Chingalee, through 
whose knowledge in the said Chingalee language accompanied 
by a great and good zeal to preach and propagate the true 
reformed religion amongst the Chingaleese and other natives, 
this Church was expressly commenced to be built about a 
year ago, for which reason also full power and authority is 
given by the said Honourable Donator to the said reverend 
gentleman to act and do with the said gardens as he should 
deem most proper for the service, greater airiness and 
embellishment of the said church and its compass. The 
transfer of the Government to the British in 1796 produced 
a great change. Evangelization was laid aside. The 
churches and schools, including those of Cotta, were abandon 
ed and allowed to fall into decay, and the people returned 
to Buddhism and its companions, kapuism and devil worship. 
The proponent system was soon abolished, having left, how 
ever, an almost indelible stamp on the religion of the country, 
handing down from generation to generation a nominal pro 
fession of a belief in Christianity where none was felt. The 
last of the proponents who officiated in Cotta was Don 
Abraham of Talangama. 

The first English minister who exerted himself for the 

benefit pf the people of Cotta was Mr. Chater of the Baptist 

Mission, but his efforts were attended with so little success 

that in the year 1820 he closed the school he had started, 



and retired from the place. In 1822 the Rev. Samuel 
Lambrick, who was one of the first four C.M.S. missionaries 
to Ceylon, and who on arrival had been stationed in Kandy, 
moved to Cotta. A piece of high and waste land, named 
Thotepallekannatte, on the border of the Cotta lake, Diwas- 
nahwa or Juwannawa, was purchased from Government, and 
eight other pieces of land adjoining, from villagers, in order 
to build mission premises. The Government deed of convey 
ance is dated July 13, 1822, and signed by the Governor of 
Ceylon, Sir Edward Paget, K.G.C.B., and stipulates that the 
Rev. Samuel Lambrick shall and do take good care and 
preserve for the care and benefit of the Crown all the cinna 
mon trees which are now growing or which may hereafter 
grow on the said spot of ground. 

Soon after taking possession Mr. Lambrick wrote to the 
C.M.S. , Cotta has a water communication with Colombo 
by means of a canal connecting the Calany with the Calpera 
and Pantura rivers ; there is also a bridle road with wooden 
bridges over two branches of the canal, but in the rainy season 
this road is frequently impassable. It is sufficiently distant 
from Colombo to avoid the evils connected with a large town. 

The following year the Rev. Joseph Bailey was transferred 
to Cotta from Jaffna. Buildings were erected, and a printing 
press set up, from which 15,000 tracts were issued during the 
first year. 

On November 8, 1827, Sir Edward Barnes, Governor 
of Ceylon, laid the foundation-stone of a theological college, 
called the Cotta Institution, to train Ceylonese for Christian 
work among their own people. Most of the civil and military 
residents from Colombo, the Archdeacon, the Chaplains and 
many others were present. On the opening of the Institution 
fifteen pupils were admitted who were to receive -a good 
education in English, Science, Mathematics, Philology, Latin, 
Greek and Pali. 

COTTA 131 

The first student admitted was Abraham Gunasekara who 
was ordained in 1839 and worked at Baddegama till his death 
in 1862. The Rev. James Selkirk arrived in 1826, and, on 
his retirement in 1839, became Curate of Middleton Tyas, 
in Yorkshire, and in 1844 published his Recollections of 

In October, 1828, the first school for girls only was estab 
lished under the superintendence of Mrs. Lambrick, who 
had arrived in the Island the previous year as Miss Stratford, 
and had been married to Mr. Lambrick. Great reluctance 
had always been shown by the mothers to send their daughters 
to learn letters as they called it, and Mrs. Lambrick went 
to all the houses in the villages inviting the girls to attend. 
At the end of the year there were thirty-three girls attending. 

In the same year, Mr. William Lambrick, a nephew of the 
Rev. S. Lambrick, was appointed classical teacher in the 
Institution and in 1831 the Rev. Joseph Marsh arrived from 
Madras to help. 

The Cotta missionaries also prepared a translation of the 
Bible into colloquial Sinhalese, and on November 14, 1833, 
it was issued from the press and is known as the Cotta 
Bible. To help in the printing of the Bible, a Mr. Riddes- 
dale came out from England and had charge of the printing 
press for six years. It may be here stated that the lir.-,t 
edition of the whole Bible in Sinhalese was published by the 
Bible Society in 1823, in three volumes, quarto, of 3,350 
pages, the price per copy being ^3-1-6, but as this edition was 
found to be too expensive and cumbersome for general use, 
and as the need of a glossary shewed that it required revision, 
a revised and more portable edition was, in November, 1830 
published in one octavo volume of 1,212 pages, the price being 
only eleven shillings and sixpence. 

The C.M.S. missionaries in 1824, considering that this 
edition contained so many words derived from the Sanscrit 


and Pali languages, words common in Sinhalese books and 
intelligible to persons of learning, but not to the great body of 
the people, and so many inflections of words, different from 
those in common use so as to render them difficult to be 
understood, determined with the sanction of their Parent 
Society, to prepare and print at their own expense and at 
their press at Cotta a new version of the Bible in familiar 
Sinhalese. Thus there were two distinct versions of the 
Holy Scriptures in circulation, the older one, Tolfrey s, 
prepared under the auspices of the Bible Society in Colombo,, 
and the Cotta version by the C.M.S. For some years it 
was found impossible to reconcile either of the respective 
translators to the use of the other version, although both 
parties felt that it was desirable that there should be but one 
standard version. 

The controversy lasted until 1852, when, at a meeting held 
. in the Dutch Church, Colombo, under the presidency of the 
Governor, Sir George Anderson, it was announced that all 
differences had terminated and that both sides would join to 
prepare one uniform Sinhalese version. The Rev. G. Peltitt 
of the C.M.S. and the Rev. D. j! Gogerly of the W.M.S. 
were elected joint Secretaries of the Bible Society, and the 
second period of translation and revision began. An ad in 
terim version of the Bible was first prepared and a revised 
edition issued in 1857. A re-translation of the whole Bible was 
begun in 1858, by the Rev. D. J. Gogerly, but this translation 
was not altogether approved, so the re-translation was started 
again in 1887, with the Rev. S. Coles, C.M.S., as chief reviser. 
The work was performed with the most painstaking care, but 
when Mr. Coles suddenly died on September 13, 1901, whilst 
waiting for the assembling of the Revision Committee in the 
vestry of Galle Face Church, the revision had been complet 
ed only as far as the end of the Acts of the Apostles. Bishop 
R. S. Copleston took the place of Mr. Coles, and had com- 

COTTA 133 

pleted Romans and Galatians, when he was appointed Metro 
politan of India. It was not until 1911 that the whole work 
of re-translation was finished, and the new Bible published. 

The first public examination of the Cotta Institution took 
place in 1831, and is thus noticed in the Government Gazette 
of December 17, A breakfast was given this morning by the 
Cotta Church missionaries to His Excellency the Governor 
(Sir R. J. Wilmot Horton) and Lady Wilmot Horton, at 
which all the civil and military authorities and a great num 
ber of the officers of the regiments stationed here were pre 
sent. After breakfast the company adjourned to the Institu 
tion to hear the examination of the pupils in English reading, 
geography, geometry, arithmetic, Latin, and Greek. About 
.two hours and a half were devoted to the examination. His 
Excellency expressed the pleasure and gratification that had 
been afforded him by an exhibition of so much talent, which 
did equal honour to those who taught and to those who re 
ceived tuition. He could not express his own opinion more 
clearly than by referring to a passage that had just been con 
strued by the Latin class : Nullum tnunus reipublicae afferre 
niajus meliusve possumus, quam si doceamus ct enidiamus 
jtiventiitetn, we can confer no greater benefit upon the 
country than by the education of youth. On November 11, 
1834, the Bishop of Calcutta, Dr. Wilson, visited and with 
his chaplain spent two hours in examining the Institution 
students in geography, trigonometry, geometry, Latin, Greek 
and the Hebrew Bible. 

In 1835 the Rev. S. Lambrick returned to England and 
became domestic chaplain to the Marquis of Cholmondeley, 
and died in 1854, aged 85. 

On the retirement of Messrs. Lambrick and Selkirk, the 
Revs. J. Bailey and F. W. Taylor carried on the work of the 
various departments of the district with the assistance of the 
Rev. Cornelius Jayasinha, who had been ordained by Bishop 


Spencer of Madras. After twenty years trial it was found 
that the object for which the Institution was established had 
not been fully effected, as many of the students, after having 
completed their course, made choice of the more lucrative 
and popular employments at the disposal of the Government. 

In 1851 the Rev. C. C. Fenn (who died in 1913 in England 
at the age of 90) was appointed and it was decided to make 
the Institution more comprehensive by changing it into a 
kind of Grammar School. It was thought that in this way 
many more than formerly would be brought under Christian 
influence and instruction. In 1853 there were 106 pupils 
on the list with an average attendance of seventy. Of these 
twenty were boarders, one paid nine -.hillings, nine paid seven 
shillings and sixpence, and four paid four and sixpence 
monthly, three were pupil teachers receiving food and four 
shillings each monthly, and three were free students. 

After ten years of trial of the plans worked out by Mr. Fenn r 
it was manifest that although greater numbers were under 
instruction, there was no better supply of mission workers,, 
and owing to the opening of the Government Academy, after 
wards the Royal College, in Colombo, and other Colleges, boys 
stayed a much shorter time in the Institution than formerly. 
It was, therefore, decided not to keep up an expensive 
institution, and the present English school took its place. 
The total number of students educated in the Institution 
amounted to nearly two thousand. Of these, seventeen be 
came ordained ministers, forty-one catechists, six Scripture 
readers, sixty-seven school masters, two advocates, one 
magistrate, eight proctors, six mudaliyars, sixty-eight govern 
ment employees, and many others merchants, clerks, 

In 1841 Mr. Bailey was suddenly removed by death, and 
the Rev. H. Powell was transferred from Baddegama to 
Cotta. Two years later no less than sixty-nine adults and 



COTTA 135 

128 children were baptized during the year and 110 candi 
dates were confirmed by the Bishop, and the accounts of the 
work were so encouraging that the annual report of the 
Parent Society for that year speaks of Cotta as the heart of 
the Ceylon Mission. 

From 1848 till 1861 the Rev. Isaiah Wood was in charge. 
During this period the printing establishment was closed and 
the press sold. In 1861 the Rev. J. H. Clowes arrived, and 
the Rev. J. Ireland Jones was the Superintending Missionary. 

During the eighteen months that followed, mission work 
throughout the entire low-country underwent a severe sifting 
process, which brought to light an amount of heathenism and 
hypocrisy among those who called themselves and were re 
garded as Christians, which was hardly credible. A Buddhist 
revival took place during which public lectures were given 
for the avowed purpose of overthrowing Christianity, and 
leading the converts back to their original faith. The result 
was that hundreds of those, whose names had stood on the 
congregational lists of the various missionary societies, for 
sook all connection with the Christian church. The one 
bright feature of all this was that the revival of Buddhism 
seemed to accomplish what missionaries for years had been 
labouring in vain to effect. It taught many that it was 
utterly inconsistent to call themselves Christians while they 
were Buddhists in heart. 

In 1863 the Rev. E. T. Higgens removed from Kandy 
and took charge. The unsatisfactory character of many 
of the people he felt deeply, and in order to discover how 
many there were who were really Christian, and to draw 
a line of demarcation between them and the heathen, he 
instituted a test which he required the Christians to sign. It 
was a declaration that they believed Christianity to be the 
only true religion, that they regarded Buddhism as false, and 
that they had renounced all connection with heathenism and 


all practice of its ceremonies. Out of one thousand profess 
ing Christians, only 342 persons signed this test, and of these 
many were in the employ of the Mission. 

In 1865 Mr. Clowes was in charge and had a zealous 
helper in the Rev. J. de Livera. The following year the 
Rev. J. Ireland Jones returned with instructions to pursue 
vigorously the work of reorganization. The Rev. Cornelius 
Jayasinghe who had been in charge of Talangama removed 
to Kandy. 

Three years later, when the Mission Jubilee was celebrated, 
there were 440 adults who professed to have given up all faith 
in Buddhism. The schools numbered twenty, with seven 
hundred children attending, the number on the lists being 
about one-half more. The communicants numbered 175. 

In 1869 the Rev. R. T. Dowbiggin was appointed and 
remained in charge for the next thirty years. 

In June, 1871, Mrs. Dowbiggin (who was a daughter of Sir 
C. P. Layard, Government Agent of the Western Province) 
opened a Girls Anglo- Vernacular Boarding School which 
continues to flourish to the present day, and has been a benefit 
and blessing to many. Up to the end of the year 1916, 860 
girls had passed through the school. In 1886 the Rev. S. 
Coles had charge of a class for training catechists, with seven 

Two years later the Rev. H. de Silva, the Pastor of 
Talangama and Welikada, the Rev. G. S. Amarasekara, the 
Pastor of Cotta and Nugegoda, and the Rev. W. L. Botejue, 
the Pastor of Mampe, gave cheering and encouraging accounts 
of the work in their Pastorates. 

In 1897 Miss A. Dowbiggin was working as a missionary 
among the women and girls. 

In the same year the Revs. Joseph Perera, Theodore Perera 
and W. E. Botejue were appointed to Colombo, Talangama 
and Mampe respectively. At the close of 1900 Mr. Dowbiggin 

COTTA 137 

.gave a survey of the work of the district during his thirty 
years superintendence with the following statistics : 

1870 1900 

Christians ... ... 874 1,361 

Communicants ... ... 144 412 

Contributions ... ... Rs. 750 3,230 

Girls in G. B. S. ... ... 29 76 

Boys in English School ... 60 268 

Vernacular School Pupils ... 1,082 3,300 
Early in the following year the missionary was called to 
higher service after a painful illness patiently borne and a 
memorial brass in the Cotta Church bears these words 








On March 1 the Rev. J. Ireland Jones was appointed to 
Cotta, but the death of the Rev. S. Coles in September 
necessitated his return to Colombo, when the superintendence 
of the district was handed over to the Rev. J. W. Balding 
who had been for many years in Baddegama. 


A portion of the district was cut off in 1909 and placed in 
the independent charge of the Rev. G. S. Amarasekara, and 
called the Nugegoda Pastorate. This consisted of St. John s 
Church, Nugegoda, Christ Church, Mirihana, and six verna 
cular schools. During his incumbency, Mr. Amarasekara 
collected funds and built a parsonage. On the appointment 
of Mr. Amarasekara to Kandy in 1908, the Rev. J. H. 
Wikramayake of Mampe succeeded him. 

The following year the Rev. G. B. Perera moved to Cotta 
and the same year a long-felt want was met by the starting of 
a girls English day school by Mrs. Balding. 

In 1905 the Sinhalese Women Teachers Vernacular 
Training School, which had been started in a hired house 
in Colombo by Miss H. P. Phillips, was moved to Cotta 
under the superintendence of Miss K. Gedge. Mr. Balding 
went on furlough this year and the Rev. R. W. Ryde 
took charge. In 1908 the re-built Church of St. Matthias, 
Boralesgamuwa, was opened, and a new church, dedicated 
to St. John, was built at Homagama through the liberality of 
Mr. J. C. Ebert. 

In 1909 Mr. Balding writes, The Buddhist opposition to 
Christian work is severe and intense, and our means to combat 
it are limited. 

ThelMen Teachers Training School, established some years 
previously, was this year transferred to Colombo, where a 
hostel was opened and the students attended the Government 
Training College. After the marriage of Miss K. Gedge to the 
Rev. H. P. Napier-Clavering in 1909, Mrs. Balding had 
charge of the Women Teachers Training School for some 
months till the appointment of Miss Leslie Melville. 

In 1910 Mrs. Dowbiggin went to England, and Miss Leslie 
Melville with the help of Miss G. Hutchinson managed the 
Girls Boarding School. Mrs. Dowbiggin was missed by all. 
She had a remarkable way of keeping in touch with the old 



COTTA 139 

girls and a wonderful power of winning and retaining the love 
of her pupils. 

In 1911 there passed away in one week two of the best 
and oldest workers of the district, both good men, full of the 
Holy Spirit and good works, whose praise was in all the 
churches, William de Silva, son of Thomas de Silva, a former 
catechist, who for fifty-two years had been Headmaster of 
the Cotta English School, and Hendrick de Silva, a catechist 
for fifty-one years. 

At the end of the same year the Rev. and Mrs. A. M. 
Walmsley took charge of the Girls Boarding School, the 
staff was strengthened, the buildings renovated, and some 
necessary equipment added. The spiritual side of the work 
was not neglected as the following letter to the missionary s 
wife will shew, I regret very much to let you know that I 
have made out from the letters sent by my two girls that you 
have infused into their childish brains the teachings of your 
religion, and have nearly succeeded in attempting to revert 
their minds to same. We sent the girls to your school to get 
them educated only. We never expect that our children 
become Christians. Therefore I hereby give you notice with 
thanks that I am going to withdraw said two girls by the end" 
of March. 

The last visit of the Metropolitan, Dr. R. S. Copleston, 
took place in 1912, when about 400 people met in the 
Mission compound for a garden party and assembled for 
Evening Service in church when His Lordship gave an 

One of the best catechists, Peter de Silva, a man of little 
education and no training, but whose life was a living witness, 
was called Home during this year. 

The following year, Miss Wardlaw Ramsay, who had been 
a missionary in Palestine for some years, came to reside with 
Miss Leslie Melville in Cotta, and gave much voluntary help 


in every good work. The Rev. G. B. Perera moved to 
Colombo, and was succeeded by the Rev. R. T. E. A. Guna- 
tilaka. The Talangama Pastorate, consisting of St. Matthew s 
Church, Talangama, St. Mark s Church, Kotewegoda, and 
St. Stephen s Church, Upper Welikada, with nine vernacular 
schools, was cut off from the Cotta district, and became an 
independent incumbency under the Rev. D. L. Welikala. 

When Mrs. Dowbiggin returned from England in 1911 
she made her home in Liyanwala, a corner of the district 
where a good work, inaugurated by her husband, had been 
carried on for some years. With the help of a companion and 
a staff of Biblewomen, she still carries on her self-denying 
.labours, going in and out among the people carrying the 
Word of Life, tending them in their sicknesses and encourag- 
,ing the teachers, working independently but in close co-opera 
tion with the Superintending Missionary. 

The Buddhist opposition continued active throughout the 
district, and not only had they their day schools, but all 
Christian methods were adopted, such as Sunday schools, 
fancy bazaars, Scripture examinations, prize givings, etc. 
A Buddhist priest, writing to a local Buddhist paper, said, 
Christianity is an epidemic which is spreading far and wide. 

In June, 1914, the Rev. J. W. Balding left on furlough and 
the Rev. A. M. Walmsley took charge until the arrival of the 
Rev. S. M. Simmons in July. Unfortunately Mr. Simmons 
was invalided home in September, when the Rev. A. E. 
Dibben took the oversight until the arrival of the Rev. J. W. 
Ferrier in 1915. 

Mr. Ferrier in his first report, referring to the Boys School, 
writes, Here is an Institution the glories of the past of 
which are without parallel in the annals of the Mission. It 
has made an indelible mark in the civil and ecclesiastical life 
of the Island. Nearly every C.M.S. Pastor, Catechist, and 
Teacher prior to the year 1900 has been helped in it. 

COTTA 141 

Of Liyanwala he writes, A very earnest congregation \ 
worship at St. Paul s Church, which is the centre of an 
efficient group of schools. One great advantage to the work 
is the residence there of Mrs. Dowbiggin and her helper, 
Miss Hutchinson. Both itinerate in the villages, visiting the 
schools and cheering the teachers, and in the house-to-house 
visiting are assisted by several Biblewomen. From April, 
1915 to September, 1916, Mr. Ferrier motor-cycled 6,000 miles 
in connection with his work. 

The Baptismal Register of the Cotta district records the 
baptism of nearly six thousand persons since the commence 
ment of the Mission. This does not include the baptisms in 
the churches of the separate incumbencies which have been 
made in recent years. The first entry is the following, 
Samuel, an adult Jew, on the credible profession of faith in 
Christ. He was known before by the name of Joseph Judah 
Misrabi, and is a native of Cochin on the Malabar Coast. 
Baptized on November 4, 1827, by me, Samuel Lambrick. 

The first entry in the Register of Marriages is James Ford,, 
late a Private in H.M. s 16th Regiment, and Anachy Anna 
Kangany married at Cotta on December 22, 1827, by me, 
James Selkirk, Church Missionary. The Register of 
Burials records the burial of 212 persons, in the little 
churchyard in Cotta. In the graveyard there are only 
sixteen stones to mark their resting-places, and four of these 
are in memory of two European missionaries and two English 
children, so 196 Sinhalese have no memorial stones. 

The burials during the first twenty years of the Mission do 
not seem to have been recorded. The first entry is Anna 
Maria, wife of Maddamahallinnaygay Juan de Silva, aged 
34 years, buried December 8, 1844, by me, Henry Powell, 
Church Missionary. 

One of the first four C.M.S. missionaries to Ceylon lies 
buried in the churchyard, and the following is the inscription 


on the tomb-stone, Sacred to the memory of the Rev. Joseph 
Knight born October 17, 1787, died October 11, 1840 he 
laboured as a missionary in connection with the C.M. Society 
at Jaffna for more than twenty years. Was wrecked off the 
Cape on his way Home in 1838, when he is thought to have 
contracted an affection of the lungs, of which he died shortly 
after his return to Ceylon. His end was peace. 

Although work was commenced in 1822 and ten churches 
have been built in the out-stations, at the headqtiarters in 
Cotta there has never been a proper church building, and 
the services have been held in the large hall of the Boys 
English School. In August, 1904, the Rev. J. \V. Balding 
determined to raise money to build a church and issued an 
appeal supported by the Metropolitan and the Bishop of the 
Diocese. A sum of about Rs. 20,000 has been received from 
about 2,500 contributors, and a further Rs. 10,000 is needed 
for the work. 

On December 31, 1918, there were in the whole Cotta 
District four Ceylonese clergy ; 109 lay workers ; thirty-four 
schools with 1,412 boys and 1,156 girls, making a total of 
2,568 pupils; 1,687 Christians, of whom 680 were communi 
cants. Of these Christians 397 were in the Talangama 
Pastorate and 590 in the Nugegoda Pastorate. 



WORK in the Kandyan Sinhalese Itinerancies was com 
menced in the year 1853, and now covers the greater part of 
the Central, North-Central and North-Western Provinces and 
a portion of the Sabaragamuwa Province. For the previous 
thirty-five years the work carried on at the Kandy Station 
had been almost entirely confined to the Low-country Sinhalese 
resident in the town and neighbourhood. Very few Kandyan 
families resided in the town itself, and the object of this new 
effort was to convey the Gospel to the Kandyans in their 
villages. The Rev. E. T. Higgens commenced the work in 
July, 1853, in the district of Harispattu, as being the most 
populous for its size of the Kandyan districts. The name 
Harispattu means the country of the four hundred. 

According to tradition it received its name from its having 
been originally peopled by four hundred captives brought 
from the Coromandel Coast by King Gaja Bahu (113-li>5 
A.D.) in lieu of those whom the sovereign of that country had 
carried off from Ceylon during the reign of his father. The 
country of the four hundred is now a division with 44,000 

Mr. Higgens entered on the work single-handed, but in the 
first year, repeated attacks of jungle-fever compelled him to 
take a sea voyage to the Cape. On his return he found that 
his wife had passed away during his absence, but he vigor 
ously resumed his preaching in Harispattu, visiting every 
village in turn. Permanent outstations were commenced in 
Kurunegala in 1854 and at Hanguranketa in 1855, and the 


Itineration was extended to other parts of the country, includ 
ing the populous districts of Uda Nuwara and Yata Nuwara.. 

Robert Knox, who was a prisoner in the interior of Ceylon 
from 1659 to 1679, on his escape from captivity, wrote the 
first account we have of Ceylon in the English language, in 
which he says of Uda Nuwara and Yata Nuwara, These 
two counties have the pre-eminence of all the rest in the land. 
They are most populous and fruitful. The inhabitants there 
of are the chief and principal men, insomuch that it is a usual 
saying among them that, if they want a king, they may take 
any man, of either of these two counties from the plough, and 
wash the dust off him and he by reason of his quality and 
descent is fit to be a king. And they have this peculiar privi 
lege, that none may be their Governor but one born in their 
own country. 

The great body of the people, when the Mission was com 
menced, were entirely ignorant of Christianity. 

In 1854 Mr. E. R. Clarke joined the Mission and worked 
in Yata and Uda Nuwara for a couple of years. 

At Hanguranketa and Maturata small congregations had 
been collected, and at the former place was built a little 
church, by a Sinhalese gentleman, Mr. C. H. de Soysa. 

In 1861 the Rev. J. Ireland Jones joined in the work, 
living on an abandoned coffee estate in Harispattu. 
Mr. Higgens, owing to repeated attacks of fever, removed to 
the low-country, and the Rev. J. H. Clowes took his place. 
The Kandyans of Harispattu were not responsive to the 
Gospel, so Mr. Jones removed to Kurunegala, about twenty- 
seven miles from Kandy, and made it his centre. 

The congregation at Kurunegala assumed a more settled 
character and a small church was erected where Europeans 
and Sinhalese united in worship. The Rev. J. A. de Livera 
was appointed Pastor, and by his diligence the congregation 
made further advance. 




On Mr. de Livera s removal in 1862, Mr. Jones again took 
up his residence there and visited the villages around. 

In one of these, Talampitiya, some five years previously, a 
New Testament had been left, which had been read by the vil 
lagers. The Holy Spirit had blessed the reading, and when the 
missionary visited them again, a crowd, attentive and earnest, 
listened to the glad tidings. Within a few months thirteen 
men were baptized, one of them formerly a Buddhist priest. 
These converts became missionaries to their own people, 
with the result that fourteen more adults were baptized. 
About this time Mr. Jones was compelled to return to 
England and the Rev. E. T. Higgens again took charge. 
The Rev. John Allcock also arrived. The Church at Talam 
pitiya continued to prosper, and up to 1867 fifty converts 
from Buddhism had been baptized, some of them men of 
much intellect as well as deep spirituality. One of the first 
converts was Elandege Abraham, whose Christian life and 
character showed the reality of his faith. He became an 
earnest evangelist and in later years often accompanied the 
missionaries in their preaching tours. He passed to his rest 
on December 13, 1891, and was buried in the Talampitiya 
churchyard. In 1866 Mr. Higgens was transferred to another 
district, and Mr. Allcock became Superintendent. 

In 1870 Mr. Jones was again in charge and the work was 
extended to Anuradhapura, the ancient capital of the Island. 
Two catechists visited it and the country round for a con 
siderable distance, preaching and distributing tracts. The 
journey was undertaken at the request of Mr. Louts 
Liesching, a Government official there, who collected the 
money to pay the travelling expenses of the workers. 
Mr. Jones also spent the month 1 of April visiting the villages. 
At the close of the same year a Girls Boarding School was 
begun in Kandy by Mrs. Jones with seven boarders ; the 
following year there were thirteen. Catechists were stationed 


at Ruanwela, Kegalle and Nawalapitiya. A church com 
mittee was formed at Gampola, and efforts were made to pay 
the salary and house-rent of the catechist. 

In July, 1872, the Rev. S. Coles took charge, at which time 

there were eight catechists and six readers and a number of 

village schools. In 1877 the Rev. G. F. Unwin, who had 

been for a short time in Kegalle, moved to Anuradhapura, but 

owing to ill-health had to return to England the following 

year. Mr. Coles was now left single-handed in the district 

with twenty-seven congregations, forty day schools and 1,200 

Christians. In 1880 Mr. Coles broke down, and Mr. Jones 

again took charge, residing at Kurunegala. The Holy 

Emmanuel Church was built and opened in 1881. The 

Rev. G. L. P. Liesching arrived in 1882, and worked in 

the Kegalle and Kurunegala districts for nearly nineteen 

years. During his time a Mission House was purchased at 

Kegalle, and a Girls Boarding School opened on June 

1, 1895. The Rev. J. Allcock had charge of the Central 

District from 1884 till his death in Kandy in March, 

1887. In the year 1886 sixty-five adults and twenty-two 

children were baptized by Mr. Allcock and eleven adults and 

nineteen children by Mr. Liesching. The following year the 

invasion of the district by the Salvation Army caused a 

division among the Talampitiya Christians. 

In 1888 the Rev. J. G. Garrett took charge of the Central 
District, residing in Kandy, and for twenty-three years with 
enthusiasm and earnestness threw his very best into the work. 
Early in 1911 he returned to Dublin to undergo an operation 
and shortly after was called to his eternal rest. 

The centre of women s work in the Central District is the 
Mowbray Home. This embodies a development of the village 
work begun by Miss Denyer, who first came out in 1889 with 
Miss Bellerby and Miss James of the C.E.Z.M.S., but after 
wards attached herself to the C.M.S. as an honorary worker. 




After some years of itinerating work with Kandy as her centre, 
she was joined in 1897 by Miss A. L. Earp from the parish 
of Mowbray, S. Africa. During their village work^tbey, &v 
came convinced that it was necessary to get enquirers away 
from their heathen surroundings, at any rate until their faith 
was established, and to this end they obtained help from Miss 
Earp s home parish and took up their quarters in various 
rented houses one after another. Here they gathered round 
them various grades of enquirers, some with their families, 
and also received village women sent on from the C.E.Z. 
Mission in Gampola to be tested and taught. There were 
some real conversions, and some converts of that day are still 
Christian workers, as are also their children. Rescue work 
was attempted, but experience showed that it could not be 
carried on with the other work and accordingly it was handed 
over to the Salvation Army. The work found a permanent 
home in 1906 after the purchase and adaptation of the 
bungalow and grounds now known as Mowbray. Here 
enquirers from many villages were taken in and taught, not 
only Christianity, but elementary secular subjects and 

Miss Hargrove came out in 1908 and was located to 
Mowbray for language study. In 1910 Miss Earp writes : 
Sixteen have been admitted into the Home this year, and 
two of the girls baptized. These two are the first fruits of an 
old girl s work in a village school. Five of the girls confirm 
ed at Kegalle were sent to school there from Mowbray, and 
another girl, confirmed at Gampola, is a prcbationary Bible- 
woman there. Three of the old girls are now employed as 
teachers in the Home. There have been no less than six 
Christian marriages this year, five of them with C.M.S. 
workers. The new Maternity Home and Biblewomen s 
House are nearing completion and the Mission House in 
Hurikaduwa is finished. 


In 1911 Miss Earp mentions the opening of a Training. 
Home for Biblewomen and the admission of four women 
for training. She also reports the baptism of seven con 
verts. Miss Earp resigned in 1914 and Miss Denyer, with 
the help of Miss Findlay, an honorary worker from S. 
Africa, carried on the work, the Biblewomen s Training 
Class being given up. Miss Hargrove returned from fur 
lough early in 1915 and was put in charge of the Home 
work, Miss Josolyne also living at Mowbray and doing 
evangelistic work among the women and girls of the district- 
Miss Denyer left for England in 1915 after sixteen years of 
faithful and devoted honorary service in the Mission. 

In his last annual report at the close of 1910 Mr. Garrett 
gives the following statistics : Sixteen catechists and lay 
readers, two Biblewomen, 712 Christians, 312 communicants,, 
fifty-three men teachers, twenty-seven w T omen teachers, forty- 
four schools and 4,878 scholars. In another part he writes,. 
The schools are crowded out with the very children we want 
to reach. But till a Spirit-filled Sinhalese evangelistic 
agency is raised up the work will not grow. The whole 
community in a village gathered to witness the first two 
baptisms ever seen in the place. Two young men, aged 
eighteen and fifteen, answered most satisfactorily, showing a 
grasp of the teaching as to the Holy Spirit. The scene was 
most impressive, a schoolroom, i.e., a shed on rough posts, 
with mud walls four feet high, a clay bench all along three 
sides, a sloping board nailed on two posts for a school desk, the 
village fathers all in a long line along one mud bench which 
forms half our school furniture ; the children, twenty-seven in 
number, along the opposite side behind the desk ; several 
little ones on the floor looking up at the bowl of water on my 
white table cloth : the mothers all lining the wall outside, 
looking over the children s heads ; the catechist and school 
master on our two school chairs, the only ones in the village, 


behind the little children, facing the table. My Christian 
servant and Mark, a new convert from a neighbouring village, 
formed the Christian congregation. I read all the service 
carefully and explained almost every clause, after which my 
two brothers, Richard and Thomas, came and knelt on a mat 
before the table, and, pouring a handful of water over them, 
I admitted them into the fellowship of the people of Him who 
died for them, and I believe they are indeed living members 
of His body. 

In September, 1891, the Rev. and Mrs. G. Liesching left 
and the Rev. A. E. Dibben took charge of the Western 
Itinerancy until June, 1893, when Mr. Coles became respon 
sible until Mr. Liesching s return. In January, 1895, the 
Itinerancy which had hitherto been divided into two districts, 
the Central and the Western, was further divided, and a new 
one called the Northern Itinerancy was formed and placed in 
charge of the Rev. H. E. Heinekey. 

In July, 1898, Major Mathison, an honorary lay missionary, 
was appointed to evangelistic work in the Dumbara portion 
of the Northern Itinerancy, while the Rev. J. Colombage was 
working in Anuradhapura and the Rev. F. W. Daundesekara 
in Kegalle. 

Mr. Liesching returned to England in July, 1899, and the 
Rev. S. M. Simmons took his place in January, 1900, and 
shortly afterwards Miss S. C. Lloyd and Miss M. S. Gedge 
were appointed to work in the district. In 1903 the Rev. 
C. T. Williams became Pastor at Anuradhapura, and Major 
Mathison had charge of the evangelistic and school work. 
During his superintendence a new mission house costing 
about Rs. 12,000 was built. The same year Mr. Simmons 
was invalided home and the Rev. W. G. Shorten took up his 
residence in Kegalle. 

Mr. Heinekey whilst in Anuradhapura was instrumental in 
collecting a large proportion of the money for the building of 


a church, the foundation-stone of which was laid by the 
Bishop on August 26, 1905. On St. Andrew s Day of the 
following year the building, which had cost over Rs. 16,000, 
was consecrated as St. Andrew s Church. When Major 
Mathison left on furlough in 1908, there were 191 Christians, 
fifty-seven communicants, twenty-eight enquirers, five cate- 
chists and four schools with 196 scholars. 

The Rev. R. W. Ryde succeeded Major Mathison, and had 
just prepared the mission house for the residence of himself and 
family, when he passed away after a short illness in Colombo. 
In 1907 Miss A. K. Deering and Miss Bennett were working 
in Kegalle, whilst the following year Miss M. S. Gedge and 
Miss S.H.M. Townshend had charge of the women s work. In 
June, 1909, the Rev. R. H. Phair made Kurunegala his head 
quarters, and the Rev. C. Wijesinghe was appointed Pastor,, 
but on the return of Mr. Shorten, Mr. Phair moved to Anura- 
dhapura and took over the Northern Itinerancy. The Rev. 
A. M. Walmsley for eight months had been spending a week 
each month in the district in addition to his work at 
Trinity College. 

In 1911 the Rev. J. P. S. R. Gibson paid periodical visits 
and the Rev, J. D. Welcome was Pastor in Anuradhapura. 

On the death of Mr. Garrett, the Rev. W. G. Shorten was 
appointed to the Central Itineration and Miss M. S. Gedge 
took charge of the Kegalle Girls Boarding School. 

The following year Mr. Walmsley was in charge of the 
Northern Itineration for six months, after which the Rev. and 
Mrs. T. S. Johnson took up their residence in Anuradhapura. 
In the annual report for 1913 the Rev. T. S. Johnson 
says, Anuradhapura may be regarded as the most interesting 
town in the Island. Here is a buried city of ancient fame 
and splendour, where Sinhalese kings reigned at the zenith 
of Sinhalese history and where to-day ruins, rivalled only by 
those of Egypt, lift themselves skyward from the mass of 


jungle and scrub with which thousands of square miles of 
country is covered. 

The Rev. R. H. Phair was again back as Superintendent of 
the Western Itinerancy, and in 1913 writes : The Buddhist 
opposition has been bitter and persistent. Those who are at 
variance in every other matter are united in opposition to the 
cause of Christ. False stories backed by false witnesses and 
fabrications of all sorts are alleged against us and our 
teaching. The Jesuits in some places add their rivalry to 
Buddhist opposition and in face of all this there is a lack of 

In 1915 the Kegalle Girls Boarding School was again in 
charge of Miss M. S. Gedge with the assistance of Miss de 
Vos, and Miss E. M. Josolyne was released for work at 

Mr. Shorten went on furlough in May, 1915, the Rev. A. M. 
Walmsley taking charge of the Central Itinerancy. At the 
close of the year he gives the following statistics: One Sinha 
lese clergyman, four catechists, three readers, three Bible- 
women, 141 teachers, 830 Christians, 335 communicants, 
nineteen adults and forty-two children baptized, fifty-seven 
catechumens, forty confirmed, forty-four schools and 5,378 

In the early days of the Itinerancy the missionary had to 
tramp from village to village or use a springless bullock cart 
as his means of locomotion. The present-day missionary has 
his motor cycle and Mr. Walmsley writes : In rain and 
shine, up hill and down dale, by day and by night, it has been 
my constant companion and scarcely ever-failing friend. It 
hardly ever grows weary, and still more rarely grumbles. 
We have travelled together, during the past year, over seven 
thousand miles, and have never yet broken an engagement. 

On October 6, 1916, Mr. Phair, then in charge of the 
Northern Itinerancy, met with a serious accident whilst riding 


his motor cycle. He collided with a bullock cart and his 
injuries were so serious that his right leg had to be amputated. 
From the shock of this operation he never fully recovered. 
In January, 1917, he left for England and returned to his 
work in February, 1918, before physically fit to resume it. 

Several of the old mud-and-thatch school buildings have 
been replaced by more substantial ones during the last few 
years. Just before leaving Mr. Shorten made the following 
entry in the log-book of Gonagama School which was re-open 
ed in June, 1915 : This building has an interesting history. 
The site is our own property. The zinc for the roof was 
given by Mr. L. W. A. de Soysa. The sawing expenses 
were paid by Mr. Williams, a planter. The trees were given 
by Government, except for one jak tree which was given 
by Mr. Soysa. The teacher got the villagers to transport all 
the timber some 2,000 square feet free, from a jungle four 
miles away, the best bit of work I have ever got done 
through a teacher. The zinc 1 ton, 4 cwts was brought 
by the school children, three miles away over a mountain 
pass, without costing me a cent. Mr. R. E. S. de Soysa 
transported it from Kandy to Hanguranketa at the same rate. 
When I visited this place on March 5 three or four coolies 
were leisurely clearing the ground or site for the new build 
ing. All the timber was then growing, except two trees, 
which had been cut down the previous week. The dressed 
stones for the pillars were still solid rock, and neither sand 
nor lime were collected. This is May 7, and the building is 
now practically finished. The success of the effort is largely 
due to the zeal and hard work of the head teacher. 1 

Mr. Walmsley writes : We can say, in all humility and 
thankfulness to God, that the work is progressing. I am 
sure that the men and women working away quietly in scores 
of villages are testifying by word and life, and that we shall 
continue steadily to reap the fruits of their labours in the 


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Lord. In one village I found a bright sweet-faced woman 
with eight children, who gave evidence of an earnest desire to 
become a Christian. She is learning regularly, and seems to 
drink in what one says. I remember what a joy it was to 
watch her face, as I told her recently of Christ s sacrifice for 
her sins. We have as many enquirers, catechumens and 
candidates for confirmation as we can well deal with, con 
sidering the amount of time available for that side of our 
work, and so we thank God and take courage. 

If one were determined to look on the dark side of things 
there is always enough to break one s heart. Indeed, Ceylon 
has always been a heart-breaking place, from a missionary 
point of view. Why it should be so, I have been trying for 
nearly ten years to find out, but so far unsuccessfully. 
Doubtless a great deal of the difficulty is accounted for by the 
inexpressible inertia of Buddhism. It seems impossible to get 
a move on, to make, the dry bones live. Men who come to 
face Ceylon Buddhism must realize that God only wants men 
who can do the impossible, men who can do all things through 
Christ, Who strengtheneth them. 

In 1916 the Rev. T. S. Johnson, who had for three and a 
half years ministered in three languages, was transferred 
from Anuradhapura to the Tamil Cooly Mission, while still 
remaining in charge of the Anuradhapura district. 

The Rev. J. N. Seneviratne, who as curate to the incumbent 
of Gampola, has the pastoral oversight of the work of that town 
and in addition is in charge of St. Andrew s, Nawalapitiya, in 
his report for 1916, says: The Pastorate consists of three 
congregations, English and Sinhalese at Gampola, and 
Sinhalese at Nawalapitiya. The membership is as follows : 
English sixty adults, twenty communicants ; Sinhalese 
(Gampola) eighty-five adultsj> sixty-four communicants ; 
Sinhalese (Nawalapitiya) forty-six adults, eighteen communi 
cants. The contributions to the pastorate amounted to 


Rs. 1,561 during the year. A Confirmation Service was held 
at Nawalapitiya in three languages, when thirty-eight candi 
dates were presented. From 1906 to the present date the 
attendance at St. Andrew s Church has been steadily increas 
ing, and the building is not large enough to accommodate the 
congregation. A Building Committee has been appointed and 
it is hoped to raise Rs. 25,000 during the next three years in 
order to build a new church. 



THERE are several theories of the derivation of the name 
Colombo. Some connect it with the Kelani River, which 
enters the sea near Colombo, by others it is said to be derived 
from Calamba, a seaport or fortified place. The derivation 
most generally received is that the village and port were 
originally known as Colontota, from the Sinhalese words 
Cola amba tota, mango leaves port. The Portuguese, 
finding a name so like that of their famous navigator Chris 
topher Columbus, called the city Colombo. 

There is a tradition that the Khalif of Baghdad, in the tenth 
century, hearing that the Moorish traders settled in Colombo 
were not very orthodox Mohammedans, sent a priest to instruct 
them, who also built a mosque for their use. 

A writer in 1344 described Kalambu as the finest town in 

At the first census of the people of Ceylon, of which there 
is any record, in 1824, the population of Colombo is given as 
31,188 ; in 1871 the population had increased to 95,843 ; and 
in 1911 to 211,274. 

Percival, writing in 1803 of Colombo, says : There is no 
part of the world where so many different languages are 
spoken, or which contains such a mixture of nations, manners 
and religions. This description remains true to-day. 

At the census of 1911, persons of seventy-eight different 
races were enumerated in Colombo ; these included 2,374 
British, 110 French, 97 Germans, 13,485 Burghers and 
Eurasians, 2,495 Kandyan Sinhalese, 91,590 low-country 


Sinhalese, 15,252 Ceylon Tamils, 36,717 Indian Tamils, 
24,4S1 Ceylon Moors, 13,688 Indian Moors and 5,364 Malays. 
Among the other races represented were Americans, Australi 
ans, Arabs, Boers, Chinese, Canadians, Japanese, Egyptians, 
Parsees, Kaffirs, Zulus, Maldivians, Burmese and Maoris. 

The proportion per cent of the adherents of the four chief 
religions to the total population in Colombo in 1911 was 
Buddhists 30-89, Christians 28-31, Mohammedans, 21-56 and 
Hindus 19-07. The Church Missionary Society did not 
commence a settled work in Colombo until the year 1850, 
although it was their intention that one of the four missionaries 
first appointed to Ceylon should be stationed there. The first 
missionaries thought it more desirable to occupy villages near 
large towns than the towns themselves. In 1828 the Rev. 
A. Armour, Chaplain of St. Paul s Church in Colombo, 
addressed a letter to the Conference assembled at Cotta 
urging them to begin work in Colombo, but the invitation was 
not accepted. In 1843 a C. M. S. Association was formed 
under the patronage of Sir Colin Campbell, the Governor, in 
Colombo, to help the Mission with funds. 

In 1850 the Parent Society reviewed their missions and 
said : While most of the missions have enlarged themselves, 
the Ceylon Mission has remained almost stationary. Exten 
sion in a mission must be looked for, and in this respect at 
least, the Ceylon Mission has proved unsatisfactory. Inviting 
fields present themselves continually in other parts of the 
world, and when these are put in contrast with the Ceylon 
Mission, a temptation to withdraw its forces for employment 
under brighter prospects arises. 

The Home Committee could not entertain the idea of with 
drawal until their best efforts should have been made for its 
improvement. For this purpose they have adopted a new 
system of management for the mission. A Central Committee, 
Avith the Bishop of the Diocese as its President, has been 


appointed, and its permanent Secretary will reside in 

The Secretary here referred to was the Rev. G. Pettitt, 
who arrived from Tinnevelly in April, 1850, and visited the 
stations before taking up his residence in Colombo in 
November of the same year. 

He found a few Sinhalese catechists at work in Colombo 
and a few converts, and these were organized under the Rev. 
C. Jayasinghe. Tamil work was commenced and a catechist 
employed. The duties of Mr. Pettitt, as Secretary to the 
Central Committee, did not include any ministerial work, and 
he suggested that a church should be built, where the Secre 
tary might take regular English duty. A sub-committee was 
appointed to enquire whether there was room in Colombo for 
another church, and the facts ascertained were such as to lead 
to the conclusion that the building of another church was a 
great desideratum. 

The Parent Committee agreed and gave ^"700 on condition 
that local assistance should also be given. An appeal was 
issued in September, 1851, and on January 21, 1853, the 
foundation-stone was laid. The land was purchased for 225 
1 on the Esplanade of the Fort called the Galle Face, near to 
the bridge which passes from it into Slave Island, and on the 
edge of the lake. With the sea at a distance of about three 
hundred yards in front and the lake close behind it, the situa 
tion is both cool and pleasant. 

On October 13, of the same year, the church was 
opened for Divine Service by Bishop Chapman, who preached 
a sermon from Malachi i. 11, From the rising of the sun 
even unto the going down of the same, My name shall be 
great among the Gentiles. 

In the next annual report of the C.M.S. the Rev. Henry 
Venn, the Secretary, referred to this service as affording 
a happy illustration of one of the main objects of the 


erection of the church the union of races in the Church 
of Christ. 

The total expenditure for the site, the church with its 
fittings, and the churchyard wall was ^1,566. 

The Rev. G. Pettitt ministered to the English and Tamil 
congregations of Christ Church until January, 1 355, when he 
left for England, and the Rev. H. Whitley, Curate of Sapcote, 
Leicester, was appointed to succeed him. 

In 1857 a piece of land was acquired adjoining the church 
premises upon which a parsonage was built. The Parent 
Committee made a grant of /"600 which was supplemented 
by local funds and subscriptions of ^"450 towards this 
purpose. The house was completed by the end of September, 
1860. Mr. and Mrs. Whitley took possession in October, but 
on November 10 Mr. Whitley received fatal injuries through 
the falling of a wall in the church premises. Bishop 
Chapman wrote to the C.M.S.: The last sad offices were 
solemnized by myself on the following evening amid more 
universal sorrow than I have witnessed on any previous 
occasion. The pall was borne by persons of the highest 
position in the Colony. A tablet in the Church records that 
4 Mr. Whitley ministered to congregations worshipping in 
three different languages and that he was also a faithful 
and earnest preacher of the Gospel to the heathen population 
of the town. A memorial stone set in the floor of the school 
room at Galle Face records the circumstances of his death. 
Early in 1861 the Rev. C. C. Fenn removed from Cotta to 
Colombo, and carried on the work until the end of the year, 
when he was joined by the Rev. W. E. Rowlands. Mr. 
Rowlands was directed to give his attention to the study of 
Tamil and to assist Mr. Fenn in the English services, which 
he did until October, 1862, when he was transferred to the 
Tamil Cooly Mission. The following year Mr. Fenn left for 
England, the Rev. J. H. Clowes was appointed to Christ 


Church and in January, 1864, Mr. Rowlands returned to 

In 1866 Mr. Clowes left and the Rev. J. Ireland Jones, 
while residing at Cotta, assisted in the work. In 1867 the 
Rev. J. C. Mill was appointed to Colombo and with Mr. 
Rowlands worked among the Tamil-speaking population. 

In February, 1865, the Government made a grant of land 
situated in the Cinnamon Gardens near the Borella Road for 
the erection of a mission house and school. To erect these 
buildings the Parent Committee made a grant of ."600, the 
Local Fund ^"50, while 133 raised some years before for a 
Sinhalese Boarding School was appropriated, a Sale of Work 
in the Colombo Racquet Court produced ^246 and nearly 
-"700 was received by subscriptions. The mission house 
and school were soon built and on December, 1867, the 
first pupils were admitted to the Tamil Girls Boarding 
School, Borella, the foundation of which had been laid by 
Mrs. Temple on the previous June 14. 

In his report of the following year Mr. Rowlands (who had 
been mainly instrumental by his own efforts and liberality in 
procuring the Borella land and buildings) writes : There 
cannot be a doubt that if we are enabled to carry on the 
school as we desire, and if the Divine blessing follow our 
efforts, the school will tend very much to improve the condi 
tion of the young women of the upper classes, and thereby 
confer a benefit which cannot easily be over-estimated upon 
the Tamil people generally. 

In July, 1870, the Rev. E. T. Higgens took charge of the 
English work at Christ Church, the evangelistic work among 
the Sinhalese and the management of the Sinhalese schools, 
and the Rev. H. Gunasekara was appointed Pastor of the 
Sinhalese congregations. 

Preaching was carried on in the streets and lanes, in the 
coftee-curing establishments and at the Police Court, and the 


hospitals and jails were visited. Services were held by Mr. 
Gunasekara in school-rooms at Maradana, Hunupitiya and 
Borella, whilst the Sunday afternoon service at Christ Church 
had an average attendance of fifty-three Sinhalese. 

The Tamil work was vigorously carried on by Mr. Row 
lands ; work was started on the coconut and cinnamon 
estates in the Negombo district, and a congregation of fifty 
Christians living at Thiverlei was taken over. Preaching was 
carried on in the streets and coffee stores. There were also 
four congregations of Tamil Christians, numbering 478 persons. 

In September, 1871, Mr. Rowlands sailed for England and 
the Rev. D. Wood took charge. This year the Rev. C. 
Jayasinghe was the Pastor of the Christ Church Sinhalese 

The Rev. H. Newton became Incumbent of Christ Church 
in February, 1877, and the following year the Rev. J. I. 
Pickford arrived to strengthen the Tamil Mission. 

Both the Boys and Girls Boarding Schools at Borella were 
full of children, and the number of Christians on the congre 
gational lists was 1,092. Their subscriptions in 1879 amounted 
to Rs. 1,189-02. Miss M. Young arrr ed in 1879 to take 
charge of the Girls Boarding School, and was married in 
1880 to the Rev. J. I. Pickford. The same year the average 
number present at Christ Church English service was 144 in 
the morning and 130 in the evening on Sundays, and 49 at che 
Wednesday evening service. The Rev. J. Gabb was assisting 
at the Tamil services. 

In 1881 Miss M. Hall arrived to help in the Girls Boarding 
School. She was not only the youngest missionary ever sent 
out by the C.M.S. but the only lady worker sent out that year 
to any mission field. Three years later she was married to 
the Rev. J. W. Balding. 

On June 30, 1881, St. Luke s Church, ^Borella, was 
opened, when the Rev. J. I. Jones, who had also laid the 




foundation-stone in the previous year, preached the sermon. 
Services are now held there in Sinhalese, Tamil and English. 

The Rev. H. Newton on his retirement from Ceylon sug 
gested to the Parent Committee the holding of Missionary 
Missions or Special Missionary Weeks, and he was 
appointed one of the first missioners. The first Special 
Missionary Week was held in England in December, 1883, 
when the Rev. S. Coles of Ceylon, who was at home on 
furlough, was one of the missioners. 

In 1883 the Rev. E. T. Higgens again took charge of Christ 
Church and the Rev. S. Samuel assisted with the Tamil 

During the year 1886 over four thousand persons visited the 
mission room in the Pettah to converse on the subject of 
Christianity. This room, to quote the words of a Tamil 
Christian, was like a good well of water cut in a dry plain. 

The Rev. J. I. Pickford left for England in 1887 and the 
Rev. D. Wood early in 1888, when the Rev. J. Ilsley took 
charge of the Colombo Tamil work. 

Miss Eva Young, who arrived in 1884, began work among 
the Hindu and Mohammedan women assisted by five Bible- 

In 1890 the Tamil work was in charge of the Rev. J. D. 
Thomas. Miss Thomas superintended the Biblewomen and 
was assisted by Miss B. Child who arrived in 1891. 

A house and garden for the Slave Island pastor was bought 
by the Tamil Christians, and at Wellawatte a school chapel 
and residence for a Tamil worker erected. A piece of land 
was also purchased at Maradana, on which were erected a 
school and a house. 

It is interesting to mention here that the month of Decem 
ber, 1893, marked a great epoch in the history of the. Uganda 
mission in Africa. Pilkington, one of the missionaries, there, 
received into his soul $ message, from God through .a little 


book written by V. D. David, a Tamil evangelist, which led 
to a great spiritual revival in Uganda. David was for some 
years a worker in the Tamil mission in Colombo. 

In 1895 the Tamil clergymen, the Revs. S. Samuel and P. 
Peter, died within six weeks of each other. The Rev. G. T. 
Fleming took over part of the Tamil work, but in the follow 
ing year both he and the Rev. J. D. Thomas were called to 
higher service. Mrs. Thomas remained in Ceylon, continuing 
in missionary work. The school hall adjoining St. Luke s 
Church, Borella, was erected as a memorial to Mr. Fleming. 

In 1895 the Rev. A. E. Dibben took charge of Christ 
Church and the work among the Portuguese. A branch of 
the Boys Brigade was started and also a branch of the 
Gleaners Union. 

In 1897, owing to the fall of part of the west wall and the 
generally unsatisfactory state of the fabric of Christ Church, 
it was pulled down, entirely re-built, and re-opened on March 
18, 1899. 

In 1899 the English work was in charge of the Rev. J. 
Thompson and the Tamil work in charge of the Rev. J. I. 
Pickford. In the following May the. Rev. E. T. Higgens, 
who first came to Ceylon in 1851, retired. 

Mr. John Daniel, the Headmaster of the Tamil Boys 
Boarding School, was ordained this year, and the mission 
suffered a serious loss by the death of Lieut. -Colonel 
Meaden, who was honorary treasurer of the mission, a 
member of the Finance Committee, and treasurer of the 
C.M.S. Colombo Association. 

The pastorates of the Sinhalese congregations of Christ 
Church and St. Luke s Church were separated from the Cotta 
district and placed under the Rev. D. J. Perera as pastor. 

It had been felt for some years that the work in Colombo 
needed supplementing by the establishment of a high-class 
educational institution for girls, and therefore in February, 


1900, the Ladies College was opened in a large bungalow in 
Union Place, with Miss L. E. Nixon as Principal, and Miss E. 
Whitney as Superintendent. Progress was at first slow, and 
only twelve pupils were in the school at the end of the first 
year, representing Tamil, Sinhalese, Jewish and English 

In 1901 the Rev. E. T. Higgens, who had been mainly 
instrumental in starting the Ladies College, died in England 
on June 11. For the last few .years of his life, before his 
retirement, he had resided at the Galle Face Mission House, 
undertaking the duties of the Secretariat. But the old love of 
evangelization remained and constantly he was to be seen in 
the streets and public places with the catechists, preaching and 
inviting the heathen to come to Christ. 

The Rev. S. Coles, who was in charge of the Sinhalese 
station in addition to the work of revising the Sinhalese Bible, 
also received his Home call this year. One more diligent in 
business, fervent in Spirit, and earnest in serving the Lord, it 
would be difficult to name. A brotner missionary, after 
spending some time in his company, remarked, How that 
fellow does work. I never saw anything like it. 

And that work continued to the last moment of his life. 
On the morning of September 23 he spent some two hours 
preparing for the meeting of the Revision Committee 
appointed to take place on that day. At the hour appointed 
he walked from the mission house to the vestry of Christ 
Church, declining proffered help, and saying in his bright 
way that he felt like a young man. These were his last 
words. He took his seat in the vestry, and had only just 
done so s when with hardly a sigh or a sound he was gone. 
Mr. Coles came out to Ceylon in 1861. His chief, if not his 
only recreation was to get for a time among children. His 
appearance among a crowd of young people, enjoying the 
freedom of play hour, was greeted with shouts of welcome. 


For the children s benefit he used to good purpose his 
remarkable gift of versification in Sinhalese. The Rev. 
J. I. Jones returned to Ceylon and took over the Sinhalese 
work in May, 1900, Miss A. Higgens and Miss E. M. Josolyne 
were working among the women, and the Rev. W. J. Hanan 
among the Tamils, assisted by Mrs. J. D. Thomas, Miss 
E. S. Young and Miss E. J. Howes. 

The Rev. A. R. Virasinghe having resigned, the Rev. 
J. V. Daniel was appointed to succeed him as Tamil pastor. 

The following year Mr. Pickford returned to superintend 
the Colombo Tamil work. 

This year the Government acquired for railway extension 
purposes the land on which St. John s Church, Maradana, had 
been erected a few years before, thus necessitating the demoli 
tion of the little church. Mr. Chellappah, who had been head 
master of the Girls Boarding School for about twenty-eight 
years, died this year. He was, as he once said, a Christian 
from conviction, and he had to suffer for his conviction. 

In June, 1903, Mr. J. W. Ferrier arrived from Australia as 
mission accountant. He also took charge of a Sunday 
School in the Kew Police Barracks, re-started the Gleaners 
Union, and gave help in taking services in and around 

On November 12 the Rev. J. Ireland Jones, who had 
been connected with Ceylon since 1857, was called to his 
eternal rest. Mr. Jones had acted on three separate occa 
sions as Bishop s Commissary, and also taken a leading part 
in the ecclesiastical settlement made at the time of the 
disestablishment of the Church in Ceylon. His Handbook 
of Sinhalese has been useful to many a student of the 
language, and his booklet, The Wonderful Garden, a story 
designed to convince Buddhists of the existence of a Creator, 
has been a blessing to many. Of a very gentle and loving 
disposition, he yet never made any compromise where he 


considered the honour of the Lord or the truth of His word 
to be concsrned. This year the Tamil work in Galle was 
strengthened by the appointment of Miss E. C. Vines and 
Miss H. E. Payne. 

In January, 1904, the Rev. R. W. Ryde took charge of the 
Sinhalese work and the Rev. W. Booth, who had come out in 
1901, of the Tamil work. At the end of the same year 
Miss Young and Miss A. E. Thomas were working among the 
women. The following extract from a letter written by the 
latter will give some idea of the nature of the work and of the 
blessing that rested upon it : I had between 200 and 300 
houses on my list to visit. In addition to the pupils many 
men, women and children have heard the Gospel. In the 
course of the work I have realized the truth of the promise, 
" Cast thy bread upon the waters and thou shalt find it after 
many days." Taken by one of the Biblewomen to see a 
young Christian women, I was told that some years ago she 
was a learner. After a time she expressed a wish to become 
a Christian, but her parents strongly opposed, and prevented 
her learning with the Biblewoman by leaving that neighbour 
hood. But she had learnt to read and had a Scripture 
portion which she used to read secretly. Then the mother 
married her to a man who had been baptized in his infancy, 
but apparently was not a Christian except in name. These 
two went back to the man s native village in Tinnevelly. 
There she had more opportunity of learning, so, getting her 
husband s consent, she became a candidate for baptism, and 
was baptized by my brother-in-law, the Rev. E. A. Douglas. 
When they returned to Colombo, she begged the Biblewoman 
to come and read the Scriptures and pray with her. Her 
father was dead, but her mother was living with her. Her 
mother is still opposed to Christianity, and would not stay in 
the room when I read. Two days afterwards the Bible- 
woman asked if I remembered seeing another heathen 


woman there, who listened most attentively while I was 
speaking. She said, after I had left, that woman exclaimed, 
" Oh, why was I never told this before ? Why did no one 
ever teach me about these things ? You must come and 
teach me, I want to hear more." 

I-i 1906 the Rev. A. MacLulich was appointed to assist 
at Christ Church, the Rev. G. T. Weston and Miss A. M. 
Tisdall to Tamil work, Miss Sparrow to Sinhalese work and 
Miss Henrys to work in Galle. The Rev. G. M. Arulanan- 
tham was also appointed to the Tamil mission. 

A special mission was held at Christ Church in October by 
the Rev. H. Pakenham Walsh (afterwards Bishop of Assam) 
assisted by the Rev. C. R. Burnett. The services were well 
attended and deep interest was manifested, especially by 
European men, whose hearts were so stirred that a number 
of them forthwith organized a weekly meeting at the house 
of each in turn for Bible study and prayer. These meetings 
were continued with much success till they were broken up 
by the interference of military duties consequent on the out 
break of the Great War in 1914. 

The following year (1907) the Rev. H. P. Napier-Clavering 
was Incumbent of Christ Church and Secretary of the 
Mission, and Miss L. M. Leslie Melville was superintending 
the Biblewomen. 

In September, 1908, Mr. MacLulich resigned and accepted 
the Incumbency of Holy Trinity Church, Colombo, and on 
Mr. Dibben s return from furlough Mr. Napier-Clavering 
took up his new sphere of work as Planters Chaplain at 
Pussellawa. The Rev. J. Ilsley took over the Tamil work in 
May. In August, 1909, the Rev. R. W. Ryde died in 
Colombo. His knowledge of Sinhalese, his literary ability, 
and varied experience, added to his gifts of character and 
charm of manner, had made him a most valuable missionary 
and caused his loss to be greatly felt. 




The Rev. A. K. Finnimore arrived in August to take charge 
of Christ Church having been in his early days a Ceylon 
planter and afterwards a C.M.S. missionary, first in South 
India and then in Mauritius. 

In 1910 Mr. J. W. Ferrier returned to Australia and Miss 
M. A. Ledward joined the Tamil Mission. 

This year the Rev. D. J. Perera was given a more indepen 
dent position by being placed in full charge of the Sinhalese 
congregations of Christ Church and St. Luke s. He had 
360 Christians under his care, lt>0 of whom were communi 

The Rev. G. M. Arulanantham was in charge of what 
had now come to be called the Tamil Northern Pastorate, 
which included the congregations of Hultsdorf, Mutwal and 

The Rev. J. V. Daniel was in charge of the Tamil Southern 
Pastorate, which included the congregations of Slave Island 
and Wellawatte. The Slave Island congregation worshipping 
in Christ Church numbered 319 persons, of whom 112 were 

The three ladies, Mrs. Thomas, Miss Tisdall and Miss 
Ledward, working among the Tamils, were living at The 
Lodge, whilst Miss A. Higgens and Miss H. E. Hobson were 
working among the Sinhalese. The Ladies College had been 
growing yearly, and as the work was hindered by cramped 
accommodation and noisy surroundings, it was deemed essential 
that more suitable premises should be secured. In addition 
to Miss Nixon and Miss Whitney, Miss Hall, Miss C. E. 
Browne, Miss Clarke, Miss A. Horsley and others had helped 
to make the school a success. So in 1910 the College was 
established in its own new quarters in Flower Road. 

The money for the purchase of the land and bungalow was 
largely obtained through the exertions of Miss Nixon, also 
funds for the erection of class-rooms, drill-hall, assembly-hall, 


kindergarten rooms and dormitory accommodation. The late 
Rev. C. L. Burrows, when on a visit to Ceylon with Bishop 
Ingham, gave ,"1,000 towards the extension in memory of 
his wife. At the time of the transfer there were eighteen 
teachers and 237 pupils. These included fifty little boys 
between the ages of four and ten in the school for young 
boys attached to the College, a class for the training of 
kindergarten teachers, and about twenty boarders. A class 
for Old Boys on Sundays, and a monthly At Home for 
Old Girls, a Students Union and a prayer meeting for 
girls were also inaugurated. The students also supported a 
catechist in the Tamil Cooly Mission. 

In 1913 in the Cambridge Local Examinations, nine 
students passed, four in the Senior, one with honours, and 
five in the Junior. Sixty-four girls entered for the Trinity 
College of Music Examination, all of whom passed, twenty- 
four with honours. 

In April of the following year Miss Nixon resigned after 
fourteen years of devoted work and building up of the 

Miss Wardlaw- Ramsay kindly consented to act as Princi 
pal, and with the help of Miss A. E. Kent, who had arrived 
from England, the College continued to prosper. It was 
this year placed under Government as a grant-in-aid institu 
tion and, subsequently, classed as a fully organized second 
ary school. Miss Kent resigned on her marriage in 
December, 1915, Miss G. L. F. Opie arrived as prospective 
Principal from New Zealand and Miss E. Morgan arrived 
from England about the same time. Miss Whitney returned 
from Nellore to the College early in 1916 as acting-Principal, 
afterwards becoming Warden of the Hostel. 

A library of reference books, mainly collected through 
the efforts of Miss Nixon, numbers over a thousand 




In 1917 only four girl-students in the whole of Colombo 
passed the Senior School Certificate Examination, and two of 
these were pupils of the Ladies College. 

In 1910 the men teachers who had been in training in the 
school at Cotta were removed to Colombo, and resided 
in the Teachers Hostel at Bambalapitiya whilst attending 
lectures at the Government Training College. The hostel 
was given up when the training of men teachers was com 
menced at the Training Colony. On September 19, 1912, 
the new Holy Emmanuel Memorial Church at Maradana 
was consecrated by the Bishop in the presence of a large 
gathering of Tamil Christians. The Rev. W. E. Rowlands 
preached from Psalm 32, v. 7-8, and 133 communicants 
partook of the Holy Communion. The church has accommo 
dation for about six hundred people, and is the gift of 
Mr. Rowlands to the Tamil Christians as a memorial to his 
wife who died in Colombo in 1877. 

On September 17, 1912, the Rev. D. J. Perera, who for 
some years had been pastor of the Sinhalese congrega 
tions, died. 

In 1914 the Rev. W. J. Hanan was appointed acting-Incum 
bent of Christ Church, the Rev. A. E. Dibben, the Secretary 
of the Mission, left on furlough for Australia in March, and 
the Rev. J. W. Balding was acting-Secretary till the end of 
the year, when Mr. Dibben, who had returned from Australia 
in September, resumed office. The Rev. G. B. Perera was 
appointed Incumbent of the Sinhalese congregations, and 
Miss Townshend took charge of the Sinhalese women s 

This year the Tamil catechist stationed at the Ragama 
Camp, where coolies from India on their way to tea and 
rubber estates are detained for a few days by the medical 
authorities, discovered 869 Christians and reported their 
arrival to their future pastors. This work was commenced 


through the liberality of a Colombo lady, who gave Rs. 5,000 
in memory of her husband, towards the salary of a Christian 
worker, who should seek out the Christian coolies who came 
from India, shepherd them while in the Camp, and send 
their names and addresses to the clergyman who lived nearest 
the estate they were bound for. 

A few years ago work was commenced among the Maiayali 
people who come over from Travancore to find work. There 
are about 5,000 of these people in Colombo alone. A congre 
gation of over sixty has been gathered together, who hold 
their services in Holy Emmanuel Church, and a Malayalam 
catechist works among them. Open-air services are also held 
for the Maiayali coolies working on the railway. 

Much of the progress in this work is due to the devoted 
service of the catechist, Mr. K. E. Ephen, who suddenly died 
in 1915 from an attack of cholera, whilst on a visit to his 
relatives in India. 

The Rev. W. J. Hanan in his report for 1915 says, I must 
give one illustration of modern persecution. My Tamil 
congregation at Mutwal consists largely of road and rickshaw 
coolies. Not far from Mutwal school is a rickshaw stand, 
where about twenty coolies wait for customers. Three of these 
are Christians. On a Hindu festival day the others decided 
that a present must be sent from that rickshaw stand to a 
Hindu temple, and that all must subscribe. The three 
Christians refused saying that their religion did not allow 
them. They were threatened that they would be driven from 
the stand, and that complaints would be made to the Police 
constable near, who would soon find an excuse for locking 
them up. They remained firm, so the aid of the constable 
was invoked. He, being a Hindu, entered into the spirit of the 
thing, and told the Christians that if they did not subscribe he 
would have them in jail before a week. The Christians then 
appealed to me to help them, and sent a petition with an 


account of their difficulties and the number of the constable. 
I sent it to the Inspector-General of Police and asked for an 
enquiry. That very day one of the Christians was arrested 
by the constable on a false charge and put in prison. I 
engaged a Christian proctor to defend him and went with a 
copy of the petition to the Police Court. It was proved to 
the satisfaction of the Magistrate that the charge was a false 
one, and the man was acquitted. The Christian coolies are 
poor ignorant men, unable to read or write, unable perhaps to 
give a reason for the faith that is in them that would satisfy 
many of the modern professors of Christianity, but willing to 
suffer loss and imprisonment for the sake of Christ. 

The Rev. W. J. Hanan, who had been acting-Incumbent of 
Christ Church for two years, relinquished this position in May, 
1915, and the Rev. A. E. Dibben took charge until the 
appointment of the Rev. W. S. Senior in September of that 

Miss Margaret Keith, who had been the organist for 
twenty-five years, left for England in November, whilst in 
December, by the death of Sir William Mitchell, the Church 
lost one of its oldest and most influential members. 

The Rev. G. B. Perera, the Incumbent of the Sinhalese 
Churches, retired on account of old age in June, 1916, and the 
Rev. D. L. Welikala was appointed. Mr. Perera was one of 
a Buddhist family who lived in Talangama in the Cotta 
district and had four brothers and four sisters. It was their 
custom to relate stories as they lay on their mats in the 
evening. One night the mother told the children a story 
which she had heard from an old woman in the village who 
was a Christian. The mother also told them that it was a 
story from the Bible. Next morning Mr. Perera, who was 
then a boy of eight, on going to school, tried to find the story, 
which was the parable of Dives and Lazarus. His teacher 
found it for him, and the Holy Spirit so blessed the boy s 


reading that he became a Christian. Soon after this he had 
an attack of fever, and the mother brought in a devil priest to 
perform a ceremony over him, but the boy threatened to jump 
from the bed and make himself worse if any ceremony was 
performed. The mother was angry and scolded him, but to 
her surprise he recovered without the ceremony. 

Mr. Perera s wife, who was a true helpmeet and earnest 
Christian, died in 1915, after fifty-one years of married life. 
She had a similar story to tell of her early days. She became 
a Christian whilst a pupil in the C.M.S. school at Baddegama, 
and her parents and three brothers and five sisters were all 
Buddhists. On one occasion when she had an attack of fever, 
her people got some charmed oil to be rubbed on her forehead, 
but, knowing that she did not believe in such things, put the 
charmed oil on one side in order to rub it on when she fell 
asleep. The girl, overhearing their plans, got out of her bed 
quietly, took the cup and poured the oil on the ground. Mr. and 
Mrs. Perera were able by God s grace to lead their parents 
and many other members of their families to Christ ; and 
many of their children and children s children are now 

The Sinhalese evangelistic and school work was handed 
over to the charge of the Rev. D. L. Welikala at the end of 
1917, his Church Committee not seeing their way to shoulder 
ing this responsibility. 



THE existence of the Tamil Cooly Mission is very closely 
connected with the fame which Ceylon acquired as a coffee- 
producing country soon after the British took possession. 

Coffee planting was first commenced in the Kandyan 
country in the year 1820, and the first regular plantation 
was opened in 1827. The export of coffee that year was 
16,000 cwts. Ten years later in 1837 the exports reached 
34,600 cwts., in 1849 they had reached 373,368 cwts., and 
the Government had sold 287,360 acres of forest land, 
suitable for the cultivation of coffee. Many speculators 
suffered from their inexperience. But still, Coffee became 
King, and in 1870 the annual export had risen to 974,333 
cwts., valued at ,"5,000,000. 

In 1840 Major Skinner from the top of Adam s Peak 
looked down on a dense pathless forest and foretold that this 
region was destined to become the garden of Ceylon and 
peopled with Europeans as well as Asiatics. His prophecy 
has been largely fulfilled. 

We now come to the people by whom the labour market is 
supplied and on whom the planters are dependent for the 
cultivation of the estates. 

Mr. C. R. Rigg, in an article in the Journal of the Indian 
Archipelago and Eastern Asia, Vol. VI, No. 3, writes: 
When planting first came into vogue, the Kandyans flocked 
in hundreds to the great distribution of rupees, but this 
source of labour was soon found to be insufficient, and of too 
.precarious a nature to be relied on. The Kandyan has such 


a reverence for his patrimonial lands, that, were his gain to 
be quadrupled, he would not abandon their culture. It was 
only during a portion of the year that he could be induced 
even by the new stimulus money to exert himself. Next 
came the Sinhalese from the maritime provinces, who 
have a stronger love of gain, a liking for arrack, and a 
rooted propensity for gambling. In 1841-3 thousands of 
these people were employed on estates ; they generally left 
their homes for six months at a time, and then returned with 
their earnings. The sudden access of wealth amongst them 
soon engendered as much independence as was to be found 
in the Kandyans. This source of labour became dried up ? 
and the lowlanders were only known in the central provinces 
as domestics, artificers, traders and carters. Southern 
India stepped forward to fill up the vacancy occasioned by 
the cessation from labour of the sons of the soil. 

The arrivals of Tamil coolies at Ceylon ports from South 
India for the years 1841 to 1846 were 190,074 men, 3,083 
women and 1,614 children, a total of 194,771, whilst the 
departures were 110,704 men, 2,331 women and 1,421 
children, a total of 114,456. During that period the coolies 
remitted to their country about ^"400,000, whilst the value 
of rice imported during the same period was valued at 
^"2,116,189. In the year 1900, the immigrants numbered 
207,995. For their enterprise in migrating, the Tamils 
have been called the Scotchmen of the East. The coolies 
live on the estates in long rows of buildings called lines . 
They have plenty to eat, their doctors, houses, and teachers 
cost them nothing, and their other wants are few. At early- 
dawn they are summoned by tom-tom or horn to the muster- 
ground and then proceed to work. At about four in the 
afternoon they finish for the day, first having their names 
entered on the check-roll. In the evening the women 
prepare the evening meal of curry and rice, and all retire early. 


Missionary work had been carried on for many years 
among the Tamils of Southern India, and had been most 
productive, so that among those who came over to Ceylon 
there were many Christians. In the year 1851 the Rev. 
J. T. Tucker, a missionary in Tinnevelly, wrote : In July 
last, finding no means of getting a living, twenty-seven of 
our Christians went to Ceylon, but previously appointed 
one of themselves to act as their reader, and took a Testa 
ment and Prayer Book with them. Twenty-five of them 
returned at the end of the year. They had maintained, as 
far a-; I can learn, their Christian character, notwithstanding 
they were absent from almost all means of grace. In 1846 
two of the South Indian missionaries, Messrs. Pettitt and 
Thomas visited Ceylon to ascertain if there were any 
means of reaching the coolies when away from their homes. 
But no opening at that time presented itself. 

In 1854 the Rev. W. Knight, one of the C.M.S. Secre 
taries, visited Ceylon, and was invited by the proprietors 
of some estates in the district of Matale, in company with 
Dr. John Murdoch, who was interested in the spiritual welfare 
of the coolies, to consider the subject. The result was, that 
some of the planters agreed to support and bring over from 
Tinnevelly trained catechists and arranged that the C.M.S. 
should supply a missionary to superintend the work. Pending 
the appointment of a superintending missionary, the Rev. 
E. T. Higgens, who was then engaged in the Kandyan 
Sinhalese Itineration, consented to do what was necessary. 

Dr. Murdoch went over to Tinnevelly and laid the subject 
before the missionaries and Christians, and invited cate 
chists to volunteer for the work. Eight men offered them 
selves and at the close of the year six came over to Ceylon. 
The Rev. J. Thomas thus describes their departure: We 
had an interesting dismissal of the catechists to Ceylon, 
when instructions were delivered to them as to the mode of 


pursuing their work. Each departing catechist addressed 
the meeting. 

They arrived in Kandy in November, 1854, and were 
located as follows : Annathan to Cabragalla, Joseph to 
Kinrara, Gnanamuttu to Pitikanda, Arumanayagam to 
Hoolankanda, Vethanayagam to Elkaduwa, Gnanapragasam 
to Rajawela. The owners of these estates kindly undertook 
to pay their salaries of ,"2-10-0 per month. 

The following March the catechists went over to Thine - 
velly and brought back with them their families in July. 

In November, 1855, the Rev. Septimus Hobbs, who had 
for thirteen years been a missionary in Tinnevelly, arrived 
with Mrs. Hobbs, and became Superintendent of the Tamil 
Cooly Mission. 

The C.M.S. took charge of the work, a local committee 
of planters, comprising me i of various denominations, under 
taking to defray all expenses, except the stipends and allow 
ances of the European missionaries. 

The Committee met quarterly, all matters of importance 
were freely discussed, and much practical good resulted from 
this system of management. It was also decided that instead 
of being confined to single estates, the catechists should 
itinerate, according to a regular cycle, through all the districts 
within a reasonable distance. This plan was adopted only as 
a temporary measure, and in later years the number of 
stationed catechists has been steadily increasing. The 
catechist is now appointed to take charge of some thirty 
estates, and lives in the centre of the district. 

He is able, therefore, to visit each estate at least once a 
month, and has opportunities for becoming much more 
intimately acquainted with each individual Christian, and for 
instructing each one more thoroughly. 

The catechist only preaches on those estates where fte has 
the permission of the Superintendent, and generally at 


six o clock in the morning for about twenty minutes when 
the coolies assemble at muster. He also visits the lines, 
reading and speaking to the sick, or any other people he may 
find there, visits the schools and gives addresses to the 
children, distributes tracts and portions of Scripture, visits 
and instructs the Christians, and prepares catechumens for 
baptism, and in the absence of a missionary or pastor 
conducts the Sunday Services. 

Mr. Hobbs remained in charge for seven years, until the 
close of the year 1862, when the Rev. W. E. Rowlands 
became responsible until the arrival of the Rev. and Mrs. J. 
Pickford in January, 1864. Mrs. Pickford soon made her 
influence felt upon the women and girls who came within 
her reach, regularly met the wives of the catechists, estab 
lished a Tamil girls school in the Kandy bazaar, and did 
what she could until her death on May 6, 1866. 

The Rev. D. Fenn was in charge for a few months in 
1867, and Mr. Pickford had finally to retire in March, 1868, 
owing to ill-health. The Rev. W. Clark, who had been 
eighteen years in the Tinnevelly Mission, took charge in 
November, 1868, assisted by the Rev. E. M. Griffith, who 
had been appointed in consequence of an appeal made by the 
local committee for a second European missionary and who 
was the first T.C.M. missionary to take up his residence in 
the Uva district. 

This year, the twelfth since the commencement of the 
work, there were eighteen workers and 600 estates under 
visitation, whilst there had been 394 baptisms during the 
twelve years. 

About this time, in May, 1869, orange-coloured spots 
appeared on the coffee leaves a disease called Hemeleia 
vastatrix which rapidly spread over the whole coffee region, 
whilst grubs attacked the roots, and brown bugs sapped the 
life-blood of the trees. In a few years King Coffee fell and 


was a thing of the past. With the grit and gold of the 
British, other products, cinchona, cocoa, cardamoms, vanilla, 
camphor and tea were planted experimentally, and in a few 
years, tea Camelia Theifera had the supremacy and 
became Queen over the fair fields of Ceylon. In 1873 
only 23 Ibs. of tea were exported, in 1911 about 184 million 
pounds, 380,000 acres of land being under tea cultivation. 
Four years later, in 1915, the export of tea had risen to over 
211 million pounds. 

The tea shrubs are planted in rows, and owing to constant 
pruning never grow to a great height. The tender leaves or 
shoots are called the flush, and women and children working 
in gangs under kanganies or overseers pick the flush and 
carry it in baskets to the factories. It is there withered, 
rolled, fermented and fired, and is graded as broken orange 
pekoe, orange pekoe, pekoe, pekoe souchong, souchong, 
congou and dust. It is then packed and forwarded to 
Colombo, where it is shipped to all countries of the globe, as 
it has won universal favour as the best tea in the world. 

The Tamil Cooly Mission continued to prosper, and in 
1878 there were 42 catechists, 34 school masters, 955 adult 
Christians, 442 Christian children, 378 communicants and 
32 schools with 354 pupils. A church had also been built in 
Hil! Street in Kandy, which was in charge of a Tamil pastor, 
and two Tamil clergy, the Revs. P. Peter and G. Gnanamuttu, 
were stationed at Pelmadulla and Dickoya. 

During the next ten years the Mission was divided 
into three districts under the superintendence of the Revs. 
J. D. Simmons, J. D. Thomas and H. Horsley. The 
Christians had increased to 1,705, the communicants to 418, 
and the school children to 867. During part of this period, 
the Revs. A. R. Cavalier, W. P. Schaffter, V. W. Harcourt 
and F. Glanvill had worked in the Mission. Mrs. Glanvill 
died and was buried in Haputale after a few months of 


.narried life in 1882, and the following year Mr. Glanvill, 
after two years work, retired, and died in Bristol in 1914, 
after doing good work as an Organizing Secretary and Vicar. 
Dr. Stock, in his C.M.S. History, writes : Glanvill was 
a most lovable character and a model Organizing Secretary. 
It was said that he had more real personal influence in 
Durham and Northumberland than bishops, deans, arch 
deacons or canons, and when he was brought to London, he 
quickly won the hearts of the clergy with whom he came in 

In 1898 the Revs. J. D. Simmons, J. Ilsley and 
W. Welchman were the Superintending Missionaries. Mr. 
Welchman had worked in the T.C.M. for five years and 
writes as follows : 

The number of the Christians on the estates is constantly 
increasing. There are, of course, amongst them not only the 
earnest, but the lukewarm and the backsliders. The mission 
aries are often wonderfully encouraged by the consistency of 
the great mass of Christians. Many planters will come 
forward and give the highest testimony as to their lives, and 
there are many ways by which the sincerity of their faith may 
be tested. Not only do the Christians give liberally to the 
Church Fund and to the building and maintenance of 
-churches, but are themselves supporting several catechists 
who are working amongst the heathen on the estates. One 
man, a conductor, spent Rs. 100 in purchasing a magic lantern, 
and Rs. 900 on slides representing the life of Christ, and now 
goes about the estates preaching to the coolies. It is no 
easy matter for a cooly to get up and walk ten miles to church 
.and ten back in the burning sun, and yet this is what very 
many of them do. Nor is it a trifling matter for the 
catechists and schoolmasters to give up their time and all to 
the work when they could get much more remunerative 
employment elsewhere, or for the Christians, as they often do 


to stand up in the open air and testify for Christ. An over 
seer on an estate built a small room. Day by day he gathered 
coolies together and read God s word to them. On being 
asked his reason for so doing, he replied, " God has taken six 
of my little children to Himself, now I want to win six souls 
for Him." Not long ago a youth who had learnt about Christ 
in one of the schools was turned out of his father s house 
for refusing to take an offering to the little idol-house, and 
another man was beaten very severely for going to the 
schoolmaster s house to read the Bible and learn about Christ. 

The Christians in 1898 numbered 2,932, the communicants 
1,070, the schools 48, the scholars 1,893, whilst the 
income from all sources amounted to Rs. 10,934. During 
this last decade the Revs. W. J. Hanan, J. W. Fall and 
H. C. Townsend were workers for different periods, whilst in 
1899 the Rev. J. I. Pickford and in 1904 the Rev. A. N. C. 
Storrs gave valuable help. The Rev. W. Booth joined the 
Mission in 1901. 

The Rev. J.D. Simmons retired in 1903 and died in 1914, and 
an In Memoriam notice in the C. M. Review for June, 1914, 
said: Few men have more decidedly left their mark upon the 
Tamil Cooly Mission than he has. His sterling character 
and entire devotion to the work he had in hand were highly 
appreciated by the European planters, even by those who 
were not in a position to estimate his spiritual qualifications 
at their true value, while his gentlemanly bearing and kindly 
disposition won for him the affectionate esteem of many of 
chem. The catechists and schoolmasters could not fail to 
realize that in him they had a teacher and guide of no 
ordinary spiritual power. 

In 1904 the Rev. J. llsley was in charge of the Central 
Division and part of the Southern Division, residing at 
Nanuoya. and the Rev. R. P. Butterfield, who arrived in 
Ceylon in 1900 and had rendered help in Haputale, St. John s 


College, Jaffna, and Colombo, assumed charge of the Northern 
Division, together with the Sabaragamuwa portion of the 
Southern Division. Working in Kandy among the Tamil and 
Mohammedan women were Miss Franklin, Miss Howes and 
Miss Finney. On the departure of the latter to England, 
Miss Poole (who afterwards became Mrs. W. S. Senior) was 
associated with Miss Howes in the same work. 

Until 1895 this work had been carried on under the 
superintendence of the wives of the missionaries stationed 
in Kandy. It was greatly handicapped for many years by 
having no Home, to which enquirers and others could be 
brought for instruction or protection. In 1906 the need was 
supplied by the renting of the Snuggery as the head 
quarters of the Women s Work, and the Home thus provided 
has proved the mean> of much blessing. Miss Howes in 
one of her annual letters speaks of it as being the most fruit 
ful part of her work. In the early days, lace-making was 
taught as a means of livelihood for the converts, and was 
brought to a high degree of perfection, but of later years 
the Home has gradually assumed the character of a school, 
thus showing that there is in Kandy an opening fora boarding 
school for Tamil girls. Several converts have gone from the 
Snuggery to be trained as nurses in the American Mission 
Hospital for Women at Uduvil, Jaffna, and in all 140 girls 
have passed through the Home, 54 of whom were Hindus 
and 12 Mohammedans. 

The visiting in the slums of Kandy has gone on regularly 
and many Mohammedan women have learnt to read the Bible. 
Definite results have not been obtained, but the way of Life 
has been opened to many. As Mis? Howes writes : It is 
difficult for the women to make any stand for Christ as they 
are so much in the power of their relations and again 
definite results are precluded largely because the men, their 
husbands, are untouched. In 1910, 150 Mohammedan 


women were being taught regularly. Visiting has been done 
in Gampola,* Nawalapitiya, Matale, Peradeniya, but when, 
as has frequently occurred, one missionary has had to carry 
on alone, the outstation work has had to be dropped. Miss 
Case, Miss Henrys, Miss Tisdall and Miss Led ward have all 
worked in Kandy at different times. The lace school in 
Brownrigg Street, carried on for many years as part of the 
women s work and attended mainly by Hindu and Moham 
medan girls, was handed over to the Kandy Tamil Pastorate 
in 1913. 

The numerical weakness of the staff of missionaries in the 
T.C.M. became very marked in 1905 when the Rev. J. Ilsley 
having left for England, the burden of the whole work fell on 
the Rev. R. P. Butterfield and the Rev. T. S. Johnson, who 
later in the year took charge of the Southern Division. On 
the return of the Rev. J. Ilsley the T.C.M. had once more its 
normal complement of three missionaries. This state of things 
however only lasted for a brief while, for in March, 1906, 
the Rev. J. Ilsley left the mission and the work again 
devolved on his two younger colleagues. 

But in 1907 the T.C.M. received a very welcome accession 
to its staff in the person of the Rev. W. E. Rowlands, who 
had had so much to do with its earlier development and who, 
after a lengthy spell of 23 years in parish work in England, 
now returned to the land and the people he loved so well. 

The Rev. and Mrs. R. P. Butterfield left on furlough in 
1908 and for two years the T.C.M. was managed by the Rev. 
W. E. Rowlands and the Rev. T. S. Johnson. During this 
period however a marked advance was made in the organi 
zation of the Tamil congregations into nine definite pastorates^ 
In 1907 the Kelani Valley had become a vigorous pastorate 
under the Rev. J. G. Doss. This was a comparatively new 
district having been first opened for evangelistic work among 
the coolies in 1884 by the Rev. J. D. Simmons, when there 



were reported to be 45 Christians, whose contributions 
amounted to Rs. 13-40. In 1917 there were 813 Christians, 
and their contributions amounted to Rs. 2, 129 59. We also 
find the Rev. A. Sathianathan at Dickoya, the Rev. A. Pakkia- 
nathan in Dimbula and the Rev. C. T. Williams in Kandy. 

In 1908 the Christians in the whole T.C.M. had increased to 
3,934, the communicants to 1,400, the schools to 107 and the 
scholars to 5,551. The statistics of the mission do not always 
fully represent the year s work, as sometimes it happens that 
a larger number of Christians than usual return to the 
coast, or a larger number arrive. During recent years the 
cultivation of para rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis] has been 
taken up by the planters. In 1898 only ten tons of rubber 
were exported ; thirteen years after in 1911, six million pounds 
weight, valued at over 28 million rupees, left the country. 
Four years later, in 1915, the exports in rubber had reached 
the enormous amount of forty-six million pounds weight. 

Rubber is obtained from the trees by what is called tapping. 
Spiral or herringbone cuts are made in the tree to the height 
of about six feet, and the milk or latex then runs down, is 
collected in tins, removed to the factory, mixed with creosote 
and acetic acid, and clotted into sheets of rubber, which are 
placed in the hydraulic press and compressed into blocks about 
two inches thick. The wounds on the tree are re-opened at 
the next tapping by shaving off a small slice. (Dr. Willis.) 

Rubber will grow almost anywhere in Ceylon below an 
elevation of 3,000 feet, and Sinhalese villagers seem to be 
attracted to work on rubber estates. 

The Rev. T. S. Johnson left on furlough in 1909, and his 
place in Kandy was filled by the Rev. W. Booth, who had 
also returned from furlough, while the Rev. R. P. Butterfield 
assumed charge of the Central Division. 

The Ceylon Observer, established in 1834, and since 1859 
owned by the Ferguson family (Messrs. A. M. and J. Ferguson) 


has from its commencement been a warm supporter of 
all Christian work. It had a leading article on the 
Tamil Cooly Mission in its issue of April 24, 1911, from 
which the following is an extract : The report of the 
Tamil Cooly Mission constitutes a very effective reply to 
that diminishing number of people, who are still sceptical 
or doubtful of the use and value of Christian work in the 
planting districts of the island. There are still some who 
think that the Tamil cooly was a better labourer and a more 
contented man in the good old days before any attempt had 
been made to bring him that Message to which his employer 
owed more than he was frequently willing to confess. That 
attitude completely ignores the vast changes which have 
taken place in the labour problem in the period in question. 
The planter of fifty years ago was in most cases a proprietor 
with a closer personal interest in his workers than the 
average servant of a company can possibly have. Moreover, 
the moral status of the cooly when compared with that of 
fifty years ago is immensely higher. That is not to say that 
it is as high as it should be, or that it is impossible to find 
grounds for cheap sneers at or even sincere criticism of 
the cooly s character. But if we begin to mark iniquity in 
that fashion, who shall be able to stand ? When a fair 
estimate is made of the generations of soul-destroying heathen 
ism which lie behind the cooly, it is surprising that his level 
is not lower than we find it. 

And the most hopeful feature of the case is, that the cooly 
is so susceptible to civilizing and evangelizing influences, 
that he responds so readily to the truth that is taught when it 
is brought in clear and guileless methods before him, that, 
speaking generally, he proves to be a consistent Christian 
according to the light that he has. We do not forget that 
even now an occasional facetious advertiser declines to con 
sider applications from Christians for employment. But the 


most casual examination of such cases usually shows that the 
irate employer has been deceived by a smart scoundrel using 
Christianity for financial profit, which could easily have been 
detected by the simple method of writing to the man s alleged 
pastor, or that there has been a good deal to say on both 
sides, and the employer is by no means the only injured 
party in the affair. The Christian Church in Ceylon can 
point to numerous cases, perfectly genuine and open to the 
most rigid scrutiny, of coolies who have embraced the 
Christian faith, and are as a result living up to a standard 
that would not disgrace a Christian of any nation. There 
are authentic records of direct evangelistic efforts made by 
coolies who were not satisfied that they alone should remain 
in possession of a manner of life, that they had learned to 
value so highly, and that had made so great a difference to 
them. Thus the conversion of one or two members of the 
labour force of an estate sets in motion forces for good, the 
results of which it is difficult to calculate. 

In 1912 the Rev. A. K. Finnimore, who had joined the 
Ceylon Mission in 1909, succeeded the Rev. W. E. Rowlands 
in the charge of the Southern Division and in the Secretary 
ship of the Mission, and in the same year a new pastorate 
was formed in Sabaragamuwa under the charge of the 
Rev. P. A. Paukiam, son of an old catechist connected with 
the Tamil Cooly Mission. 

In the report for 1915 we find there was an income of 
Rs. 13,949. The 5,500 adults and children also contributed 
Rs. 17,361. The Rev. W. Booth writes : The grace of 
liberality, efforts to win others for Christ, and the honouring 
of God s word by reading it privately and at family 
prayers show that some of the Christians have got hold 
of the real thing. A tea maker is giving by instalments 
a sum sufficient for the purchase of a set of communion 


At a Confirmation an overseer brought two sovereigns a^ 
a thank-offering for his recovery from a serious illness. 
In one district, on Good Friday, when a collection was 
made for the Jews, a woman in the congregation brought 
Rs. 12 as her offering. 

The catechists, who are our messengers to the people, 
greatly deserve the prayerful sympathy of all who wish their 
work to prosper, for their task is not an easy one, and the 
discouragements they meet with from those who ought to 
help them are many. 

One of these catechists writes in his journal, The estates 
are not near to each other. I have to pass through forests, 
cross rivers and climb up and down the steep hills. On some 
estates I have no place to sleep, and sometimes I can get 
nothing to eat before I lie down. Yet I take much pleasure 
in visiting the estates, and telling the Hindus about Christ. 
Another writes, I walk in sunshine and rain. On some 
estates I find no place to stop for the night. On one occasion 
I had to sleep in a cattle shed. 

A noteworthy point, gleaned from the statistics for the 
year 1916, is that the contributions of the Tamil Christians 
themselves Rs. 16,879-29 exceed the European and general 
contributions Rs. 13,990-35 by Rs. 2,888-94. When one 
considers the circumstances of the coolies who form the 
greater part of the congregations, one realizes with thankful 
ness and feelings of shame that the lesson of self-support 
and the duty of every church to be from its commencement 
a missionary church, are being learnt and put into practice 
by these new Christians in a way that sets an example to 
Christians and Churches of an older growth. 

In 1917 the staff of the Mission was the normal one of 
four superintending missionaries the Revs. W. E. Rowlands, 
A. K. Finnimore, R. P. Butterfield and T. S. Johnson. At 
the same time there were eight Tamil clergy associated with 




them in the pastoral oversight of the congregations. These 
were the Rev. T. D. Sathianathan at Badulla, the Rev. 
P. A. Paukiam at Rakwana, the Rev. J. Yorke at Avisawella, 
the Rev. A. Pakkianathan at Lindula, the Rev. J. G. Doss 
at Dickoya, the Rev. S. M. Thomas at Gampola, the Rev. 
N. G. Nathaniel at Matale, while the Rev. G. M. Arula- 
nantham was expected to take charge of the Kandy Tamil 

The Christians connected with the T.C.M. have increased 
from 3,140 in 1900 to 4,711 in 1918 and their contributions 
from Rs. 5,314-93 to Rs. 14,728 48. 

The work sustained a severe loss in 1918 by the death in 
England of the Rev. W. Booth, and a further one by the 
well-earned retirement of the Rev. W. E. Rowlands, which 
was the occasion for the unique honour of an appreciative 
minute being passed by the Ceylon Planters Association 
and for the request that an enlarged portrait of the veteran 
missionary should be placed in the Planters Hall, Kandy. 

The minute is as follows : 

This Association desires to express the deep sense of 
planters of Ceylon of their appreciation of the long and valua 
ble services rendered to the community in general and to plant 
ers and their coolies in particular by the Rev. W. E. Rowlands, 
Secretary of the Tamil Cooly Mission. 



AN effort to bring Christian education to the Kandyan girls 
of rank first led the C.E.Z.M.S. into Ceylon. The high-class 
Buddhists of the Kandyan country had seemed as inaccessible 
to ordinary methods of foreign missions as the rocky height 
-of Adam s Peak, which only enthusiastic pilgrims scale in 
search of salvation. The Rev. and Mrs. J. Ireland Jones 
believed, in spite of every discouragement and adverse opinion, 
that it would be possible to induce the parents to entrust their 
daughters to the care of English ladies. The Rev. J. G. 
Garrett (C.M.S.) also had the project at heart and when 
speaking in Birmingham in 1888, appealed for ladies to start 
the work. 

Miss Bellerby and Miss James responded to the appeal and 
the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society sent them 
out in 1889, the expense of the venture being largely met by 
a few warm supporters of the Society. 

On arrival in Ceylon, Miss Bellerby and Miss James went to 
Cotta to learn the language. Miss Denyer, who went out 
as an unattached and honorary worker, joined them and 
worked amongst the villages around Kandy. Later on she 
transferred to the C.M.5., as that Society was responsible for 
the evangelistic work in the Kandy district. 

In 1890 a suitable bungalow, Hillwood, was found, in which 
to begin the proposed boarding-school in Kandy, and Miss 
Bellerby and Miss James removed there. A prospectus was 


issued bearing the names of three Kandyan Chiefs. Miss R. 
Gooneratna of Cotta was associated with the missionaries in 
the work during these early years and her wise and untiring 
efforts did much to build up the school. 

Hilhvood was originally called the Clarence Memorial 
School in memory of the infant son of the Rev. and Mrs. J. 
Ireland Jones, but owing to the confusion that constantly 
arose through having two names to the same institution, the 
Society decided in 1900 to drop the name Clarence 
Memorial. Such progress was made that in 1892 there were 
altogether twenty girls in the boarding school, and Miss 
Maiden was sent out to help Miss Bellerby in the work as 
Miss James had married the Rev. E. Bellerby. 

Miss Scovell accompanied Miss Maiden and, after learning 
the language at Hilhvood, went to Gampola to start the village 
mission work there. 

In 1892 the Government Agent, Mr. P. A. Temple, in the 
Administrative Report writes, I should not pass unnoticed an 
admirable institution conducted in Kandy by some English 
ladies for the education of the daughters of Kandyan Chiefs. 
It is no small thing to have made an attempt, even partially 
successful, to bring out into the sunshine of knowledge and 
womanly accomplishments a class which native prejudice has 
hitherto consigned to the gloomy and uncultured life of a 
Kandyan Walauwa. 

In 1893 three of the pupils were confirmed one being 
the first convert to Christianity. 

In 1894 the work was reported of as successful, though the 
spadework done in those early years by Miss Bellerby had 
been exceedingly difficult. For many years, owing to the in 
accessibility of the Walauwas before the days of train and 
of motors the children only went home once a year, during 
Sinhalese New Year in April. 

The numbers soon outgrew the capacity of the bungalow, 


and in 1895 a dormitory to accommodate thirty girls was 
added. In 1897 Miss Alice Naish arrived to help in the school 
and carried on bravely with Miss Maiden during Miss Bellerby s 
furlough, but she died at Home in 1901, the strain of the work 
having too great for her. 

In January, 1901, Miss Lena Chapman, who had been 
invalided home from Bengal, was sent to Kandy. During 
this year, the arrangement by which the Principal of Trinity 
College was manager of the school, the Rev. J. G. Garrett, 
Clerical Secretary and Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Duff 
Gibbon, Financial Secretary, came to an end. Miss Bellerby 
was appointed Manager as well as Principal, and the Rev. 
A. E. Dibben became Corresponding Secretary with the 
Home Society. 

In 1902 Miss Menage came out to help in the care of the 
girls. She was transferred to the Deaf School in Palam- 
cottah, South India in the following year, and returned to 
help in the Deaf and Blind School in 1912. 

In 1903 Miss Scovell and Miss Maiden retired. The latter 
had been invalided home in 1901 having done good work in 
the school, and was not allowed to return. The first success 
in a public examination Junior Cambridge was obtained in 
1903, one fesult of this being that girls were allowed to stay 
longer at school ; thus a blow was struck at the prevalent 
practice of too early marriage. 

In 1904 Miss Eva Heather, B.A., came to Hillwood, and 
from 1904-1907 Miss Lena Chapman was acting-Principal, 
while Miss Bellerby was on furlough. Miss E. Curtis joined 
Hillwood in 1905 as a local worker, and in 1907 Middle- 
wood, a bungalow near Hillwood, was opened as a school for 
little boys from four to eight years of age, the boys schools 
in Kandy not catering for such young children and the parents 
being desirous of having their small boys at Hillwood with 
their sisters. Miss F. Naish took charge of Middlewood. 



In 1908 Miss Rose Overton (Somerville College, Oxford) 
joined the Hillwood staff and Miss M.F. and Miss B.E. Brutton 
came out to give voluntary help for a year. In this year, 
Hillwood was enlarged to accommodate over a hundred girls. 
This was done by blasting away a large portion of the hillside 
and filling up a deep ravine with the debris. Thus a two-storied 
school building, play-ground, and tennis court were evolved. 

In 1909 seven girls were bapti/ed and five confirmed 
fruits of the faithful work of the past years in breaking up the 
soil. In 1910 Miss Cave, M.A., formerly Editorial Superin 
tendent of the C.E.Z.M.S. and Miss J. Oakley arrived to 
help at Hillwood and Middlewood. 

Miss Lena Chapman returned from furlough in 1910 and 
opened Peradeniya School for girls ineligible for Hillwood, 
but in the following year Miss Bellerby was invalided home 
and retired from the work, and Miss Lena Chapman was 
asked to close Peradeniya School and return to Hillwood as 
Principal bringing some of her girls and all her school plant 
with her. 

Miss Heather, who had been in England for some little 
time, retired from the C.E.Z.M.S. in 1911. The Annexe 
was built on the hillside in 1912 and it has served as a 
valuable isolation block in cases of infectious illness. In 1913 
the first day pupils were admitted to Hillwood. Miss Hall,, joined the staff in 1915 and a Science Room was built. 
Miss Rose Overton, having learnt the vernacular (Sinhalese), 
was lent to the C.M.S. Training School, and she has since 
been in charge of the Women s Department of the Training 
Colony, Peradeniya. In 1915 the first Middlewood old 
boy was baptized at Trinity College. 

In 1916 class rooms and a covered way connecting the 
1 Annexe with the school were added. Several baptisms had 
taken place during these years, and this year saw the first 
Christian marriage from Hillwood. Miss Dorothy Gunston 


arrived during the year and took charge of the Kindergarten. 
Other Christian marriages followed in 1917, and thus the 
goal of the work, the foundation of the Christian Home, 
having been now reached, the school was abundantly 
justifying its existence. 

In 1917 Miss Oakley returned from furlough and brought 
Miss Cragg with her as an honorary worker. As Miss Oakley 
broke down a few months after her arrival, Miss Cragg gave 
invaluable help for over three years at Middlewood by taking 
over the charge of the small boys. 

The Kandyans are a rapidly changing community and are 
coming abreast of the other races in their national life. 
Perhaps not the least potent force in this modern forward 
movement is the influence of its educated and enlightened 


In 1910 Miss M. F. Chapman joined her sister at the Pera- 
deniya School for a year and whilst there wrote an article in 
a Sinhalese newspaper, The Rivikirana, calling attention to 
the fact that nothing was being done for the deaf and dumb of 
the Island and appealing for funds to start the work. The 
census returns for 1911 showed that there were 3,233 deaf and 
dumb persons in the Island and 3,957 blind, 947 of these being 
under fifteen. Mr. K. J. Saunders, of Trinity College, took 
up Miss Chapman s appeal and commended it to the public 
through the press. Mr. T. Gracie, Secretary of the Ceylon 
branch of the Bible Society, also wrote supporting the appeal 
and suggesting the formation of a scheme which would include 
the blind also. As a result, an Appeal Fund Committee was 
formed with the Bishop of Colombo as Chairman, Mr. Saunders 
as Honorary Secretary and Mr. Gracie as Honorary Trea 
surer, with the object of raising Rs. 37,500. Meanwhile, Miss 
Chapman went to England and succeeded in collecting over 


arrived during the year and took charge of the Kindergarten. 
Other Christian marriages followed in 1917, and thus the 
goal of the work, the foundation of the Christian Home, 
having been now reached, the school was abundantly 
justifying its existence. 

In 1917 Miss Oakley returned from furlough and brought 
Miss Cragg with her as an honorary worker. As Miss Oakley 
broke down a few months after her arrival, Miss Cragg gave 
invaluable help for over three years at Middlewood by taking 
over the charge of the small boys. 

The Kandyans are a rapidly changing community and are 
coming abreast of the other races in their national life. 
Perhaps not the least potent force in this modern forward 
movement is the influence of its educated and enlightened 


In 1910 Miss M. F. Chapman joined her sister at the Pera- 
deniya School for a year and whilst there wrote an article in 
a Sinhalese newspaper, The Rivikirana, calling attention to 
the fact that nothing was being done for the deaf and dumb of 
the Island and appealing for funds to start the work. The 
census returns for 1911 showed that there were 3,233 deaf and 
dumb persons in the Island and 3,957 blind, 947 of these being 
under fifteen. Mr. K. J. Saunders, of Trinity College, took 
up Miss Chapman s appeal and commended it to the public 
through the press. Mr. T. Gracie, Secretary of the Ceylon 
branch of the Bible Society, also wrote supporting the appeal 
and suggesting the formation of a scheme which would include 
the blind also. As a result, an Appeal Fund Committee was 
formed with the Bishop of Colombo as Chairman, Mr. Saunders 
as Honorary Secretary and Mr. Gracie as Honorary Trea 
surer, with the object of raising Rs. 37,500. Meanwhile, Miss 
Chapman went to England and succeeded in collecting over 


a thousand pounds. She also secured the services of Miss 
Bausor, a trained teacher of the blind, and induced the C.E.Z. 
M.S. to enter upon this new work in Ceylon. Miss G. Bergg 
offered herself to the Society specially for work amongst the 
deaf of Ceylon and went into training. Miss Mase, a trained 
teacher of the deaf, came out to help in the work until Miss 
Bergg had completed her course, anJ. Miss Menage, who had 
previously worked at Palamcottah, joined the staff as matron. 
The Appeal Committee collected about Rs. 48,600, the Hon. 
Mr. A. ]. R. de Soysa, M.L.C., gave a site of six acres 
near Mt. Lavinia, and on this land the school was built. The 
work itself was begun in 1912 in a rented bungalow in Dehi- 
wala, the new building not being ready for occupation until 
1914, when the Appeal Fund Committee, having completed its 
work, handed over to the C.E.Z. M.S. A serious outbreak of 
illness occurred immediately after the removal and as it was 
seen that further drainage was necessary, Icicle Hall in 
Colombo was rented and the school carried on there for a 
time. Miss Bausor returned to England in 1914 owing to ill- 
health and Miss G. Bergg, having completed her training, 
arrived in Colombo in February, 1915, Miss Mase leaving 
shortly afterwards. In September, 1915, Miss Chapman left 
on medical advice and the school was re-transferred to 
the new buildings. Miss S. C. Lloyd, of the C.M.S., was 
asked to undertake the oversight of the work temporarily, and, 
after five months, Miss Bergg became Principal, and shortly 
afterwards, Manager also. During the yean, 1916 and 1917 
steady progress was made, several new buildings were added, 
the numbers increased and new industries were started. A 
training class was opened for girls who wished to become 
teachers of the deaf or blind, and most encouraging reports 
were received as a result of the Government examination, the 
annual Government grant being considerably increased. 
Besides this generous grant the school has no fixed income, 


and is entirely dependent on voluntary contributions. Appeal 
ing as it does to the sympathies of every class and creed, the 
work has aroused widespread interest and encouraging support 
in its efforts to train these afflicted children to become useful, 
happy and, as far as possible, independent citizens. 


In 1892 Miss A. Scovell was sent out, specially supported for 
work in the villages around Kandy, which remained her centre 
until 1896 when the present Mission. House at Gampola was 
first rented. The C.E.Z.M.S. was then assigned the womerrs 
work in the Gampola district, thirty-six miles long by thirty- 
four broad, and Miss Scovell and Miss E. S. Karney carried on 
a zealous evangelistic campaign in the numerous villages, 
besides running a very successful dispensary in Gampola itself. 
Through this elementary medical work touch was obtained 
with many of the surrounding villages, patients taking back 
the Gospel message to their homes. The C.E.Z.M.S. reliev 
ed the C.M.S. of the ten girls schools in the district: and opened 
five new ones. Miss K. Gedge worked in Gampola from 
1898 to 190,;, and then took charge of the C.M.S. and C.E.Z. 
M.S. Training School for vernacular teachers at Cotta from 
1904 until her marriage in 1909. Miss Johnson arrived in 
1904 expressly for village work. Another valued helper was 
Miss M. R. Gedge who, after a period of honorary service in 
East Africa, came to Ceylon in 1900 and rendered useful help 
in various mission stations, both C.M.S. and C.E.Z.M.S., 
especially devoting herself to the English-speaking people. 
A Young Women s Christian Association branch of seventy 
members was started in Gampola in 1898 and Bible-classes 
formed, and these two branches of work were carried on by 
Miss Gedge on her arrival with much success. Living at 
Gampola, she also visited in the railway settlements at 
Kadugannawa and Nawalapitiya. Later this work among 


the railway employees and their families was taken up by 

Miss M. Peto, another honorary missionary, who, after service 

in North India, made her home at Gampola in 1910 and 

has since worked among the English-speaking people. Miss 

Scovell retired in 1903 and Miss Karney in 1905. Miss 

M. E. Lambe arrived in 1906 and from that time she and 

Miss Johnson have carried on the work. The Society having 

acquired the bungalow and compound, a new dispensary 

.and sick-room were added in 191J, a boarding school was 

started and a preaching band formed. In this year Miss 

Karney returned to the Mission and developed the work at 

Talawa, a village ne_ir Anuradhapura, in which village she 

Jived until her departure from Ceylon in 1915. 

Some of the girls schools taken over from the C.M.S. were 
given back to that Society in 1918, thus setting free the 
missionaries to devote more time to evangelistic work. 



THE great war of 1914-18 had a less direct effect on the 
Ceylon Mission than on those of India, Uganda, Egypt, 
China and Japan. Ceylon sent no Labour Corps officered to a 
certain extent by missionaries as did Uganda, India, China 
and Japan, but this was mainly due to the inability of the 
Ceylon Government to finance such an effort. Apart from 
the enlightened and active patriotism shown in some of the 
secondary schools, the attitude of the mass of Sinhalese and 
Tamil Christians was that of sympathetic spectators of the 

The Ceylon Mission played its part in the war as far as its 
numbers and position would allow. The Revs. A. K. Finni- 
more and A. G. Fraser served as Army Chaplains on the 
Western Front, while another missionary was accepted as a 
chaplain, but withdrew on account of an urgent call to 
return to Ceylon. Trinity College, Kandy, gave of its best, 
including seven of its staff, of whom two were killed. Fifty- 
four of its pupils, of whom eleven laid down their lives, also 
took part. Its contribution to the war was graciously recog 
nized by the King, who presented one of the captured 
German machine-guns to the College. Mounted on a granite 
stand, this was unveiled by the Governor of Ceylon, Sir 
William Manning, in the presence of a large assemblage, in 


The Rev. A. M. Walmsley served tor a short time in the 
I.A.R.O. in Mesopotamia and in 1917 when compulsory 
military training for all Europeans under fifty was introduced, 
several of the members of the Mission preferred to join 
the local Defence Corps rather than be exempted by reason 
of their calling. The son of a T.C.M. catechist joined up in 
1916 and fought throughout the Palestine campaign. 
Several old boys of our elementary English schools also 
joined up and served in Palestine and Mesopotamia and on 
other battle fronts. 

The smaller boarding schools, both boys and girls , 
contributed to the best of their ability to the various war 

In consequence of the war and the subsequent problems 
arising from it, the desire for greater political freedom has 
become mftre intense and more widely spread. The Christian 
community share to a great extent in this legitimate aspiration, 
the only difference being that their non-Christian brethren 
make more use of the Press and of public meetings to 
forward the particular ends which they favour. With many, 
self-determination is the political war-cry and the object 
of their agitation. It is not the purpose of this chapter to 
discuss this movement, but simply to note to some extent its 
effect as seen in the manner of the recaption of the Christian 
message. Among the masses of the Sinhalese there is a decided 
tendency to regard Buddhism as the national religion, while 
many, both Tamils and Sinhalese, regard Christianity as a 
religion of the West. Hence has arisen the somewhat 
widely-spread idea that to become a Christian is to become 
denationalized and to be out of sympathy with national 
aspirations. For this reason, the missionary body as a 
whole would welcome a far greater measure of self-reali/ation 
for the Cevlonese communities than has hitherto been 


The revival of Buddhism, which became noticeable 
early in the century, has received a further impetus from this 
national movement. Of recent years this revival seems to 
have taken the form of an attempt to demonstrate that the 
Buddhist system of philosophy is capable of adaptation as a. 
working force in the modern movements of the day, many of 
which are essentially Christian in origin. Thus we have, as 
pointed out in Ch. Ill, Buddhist Grant-in-aid Schools run by 
a central organization, just as we have Christian Grant-in-aid 
Schools run by different Christian bodies ; Buddhist Sunday 
Schools ; Young Men s Buddhist Associations in emulation 
of the Young Men s Christian Association ; and a Buddhist 
Literature Society is contemplated. Buddhists co-operate 
with Christians in Social Service Leagues and in other 
societies for the amelioration of suffering. 

As regards the Mohammedans the most that can be 
stated is that their attitude is more friendly than in pre-war 

Dealing with the congregations of Sinhalese and Tamil 
Christians connected with and owing their origin to the C.M.S.,. 
it should be noted that the ten years prior to 1918 have seen 
a considerable development in organization, especially in 
connection with the Diocese. Missionaries and Ceylonese 
clergy of the C.M.S., holding the Bishop s license, are 
naturally part of the Diocese as much as are the clergy more 
directly associated with it, their relationship to the C.M:S. 
being something additional. C.M.S. missionaries took a 
prominent part in the formation of the Diocesan Synod in 
1880, and have ever since taken their share in its work 
and in that of the Diocesan organizations generally. 

In 1909 the present Bishop of Colombo, Dr. E. A. 
Copleston, accepted the invitation of the Parent Committee 
to become Chairman of the C.M.S. Conference, and the estab 
lishment of this closer connection between the Bishop and 



the Society has been attended by much profit to the work. 
Whilst thus intimately connected with the Diocese, it is 
however natural that as the Parent Committee makes large 
grants to the Ceylon Mission and sends out missionaries from 
England, it should claim a certain amount of control and this 
up to the present has been secured by the Conference and the 
Finance Committee which together form the Local Governing 
Body of the Mission, and by a Patronage Board which 
controls the appointment of Ceylonese clergy to the charge of 
pastorates connected with the Society. The Parent Com 
mittee s Memorandum of 1900 forms the basis of the policy 
which has been pursued. Four Ceylonese clergy, elected by 
their own fellow clergy, and two laymen nominated by the 
Conference have seats on the Conference, and two of these 
are generally elected each year to serve on the Standing 

A stage has now been reached in which the leading pastor 
ates, Sinhalese and Tamil, have attained to a status of self- 
support and independence, receiving practically no grant from 
the Parent Committee for pastoral work, but assisted by 
grants in aid of the evangelistic and school work which 
nearly all of them have undertaken. 

Thus fo r example, there is now no Di-trict Missionary in 
Jaffna. The whole of his work has been undertaken by the 
four pastors and their Church Committees, with Chundicully, 
Nellore, Copay and Pallai as their centres, leaving only the 
English educational work and the training of vernacular 
teachers in the hands of the missionaries. In the Cotta 
District a similar step has been taken with the Nugegoda and 
Talangama pastorates, and in Colombo as regards the Sinha 
lese and Tamil pastorates. In Kandy the Tamil pastorate has 
become independent, and the Sinhalese congregations there, 
namely at Trinity Church, Katukelle and Gatembe, have been 
in this position for nearly forty years. 


A remarkable feature of recent years has been the progress 
and development of the Tamil Christian pastorates in the 
planting districts. Whereas in 1900 there was but one 
ordained Tamil clergyman working in the sphere of the Tamil 
Cooly Mission, the Rev. A. Gnanatuuttu of Kandy, there are 
now nine. These men are in charge of vigorous pastorates in 
Kandy, Dikoya, Dimbula, Nuwara Eliya, the Kelani Valley, 
Sabaragamuwa, Matale, Badulla and Gampola. 



THE past twenty years have witnessed a great and ever-in- 
creasing demand for education, and a correspondingly higher 
standard in missionary schools has been necessitated. The 
days are past when any sort of a weather-proof building 
would do for a school and when a teacher need have only 
sufficient education to impart instruction. Buildings, to 
satisfy Government requirements, must be of a much higher 
type, and teachers must, with few exceptions, be more or less 
experts. Thus the burden and expense of missionary schools 
becomes increasingly heavier. Secondary schools must have 
their laboratories and science equipment and all schools must 
have a certain proportion of trained teachers on their staffs. 

A feature of the present demand for education is the desire 
to learn English. Parents will pay anything in reason and 
often more than they can afford for English education for 
their children. Pupils will daily trudge miles to supplement 
a vernacular school course with some instruction in English. 

The importance of higher educational work is accentuated 
in these days of national aspirations. Ceylonese are taking 
a more and more prominent part in public life and although 
the few proceed to an English University, the many receive 
their deepest educational impress in the high schools and 
colleges of the island. Moreover, in connection with the 
progress of Christianity and the development of the Church 
of the future, it is increasingly necessary to aim at the 
training of men who will be fitted to take a leading part. It 
is a significant fact that with some few notable exceptions, 


the Ceylonese of outstanding capacity in politics, Government 
service and business, are Christians or have received their 
education in a Christian institution. 

A distinction more or less defined may be noticed in the 
outlook and ideals of the Christian and non- Christian leaders. 
Christianity gives a wider and more altruistic outlook and, in 
many of the present-day leaders, tends to moderate the 
ambitions of the extreme Nationalists without, however, 
evincing any lack of sympathy with any reasonable scheme for 
the greater self-realization of the Ceylonese races. 

The teaching of science, both pure and applied, has made 
great strides of recent years. The School of Tropical 
Agriculture is doing a great work and receives the support of 
the land-owning classes. Agriculture as a profession is 
beginning to compete with the practice of law and medicine 
and with the attractive Government service. 

The world-wide movement towards Social Service has not 
left Ceylon untouched. The first Social Service League in 
the island was initiated at Trinity College under the leader 
ship of the late Capt. N. P. Campbell. The movement has 
spread, and in Colombo and in other places similar organiza 
tions are working for the uplift of the masses. Some of 
these are even non -Christian, but when one remembers the 
pessimism of the Buddhist philosophy, the negative idealism of 
Hinduism and the fatalistic creed of Mohammedanism, there 
can be no doubt as to the source of the inspiration. 

Higher education for girls is still largely in the hands of 
the missionary bodies at work in the island. The Buddhists 
have two institutions in Colombo and others are projected, 
whilst the Hindus have one school in the North. The 
Mohammedans, the most backward race as regards education, 
are beginning to bestir themselves, but so far only as regards 
the education of their boys. Signs are not wanting that in 
India the more enlightened Mohammedan communities are 




realizing the necessity for educating their girls, and it is 
hoped and believed that this movement will before long 
spread to Ceylon. There are two factors which mark the 
urgency of the higher education of girls. One is that the 
educated young Easterner feels the need of and demands 
a correspondingly educated and enlightened partner. The 
second is the increased scope for the work of women 
in social service. The pace at which the movement for the 
emancipation of women in the East is progressing leaves 
the historian breathless. During the last year or two, the 
claim for the franchise for women has been urged in India 
with no uncertain voice. The fulfilment of this claim is 
probably far distant, but that it has been made at all, is a 
momentous advance. 

From a missionary point of view, the Boarding Schools 
for Girls are the most satisfactory in results. These, however, 
share with all other grades of schools, in the necessity for 
complying with the demands of Government for better 
buildings, more competent staff, and more up-to-date equip 
ment. To keep pace with these demands is an ever-increasing 
difficulty and many schools barely pay their way. 

A few years ago compulsory education was introduced 
and is gradually being enforced. With it came also the 
Conscience Clause, a copy of which is displayed in every 
school. A new policy of education affecting our vernacular 
schools, recently foreshadowed by the Ceylon Government,, 
constitutes a problem for our Missionary Societies. The near 
future will witness a considerable modification of evangelistic 
effort, the chief notes of which will be more concentration 
and greater efficiency. 

Within the sphere of the Tamil Cooly Mission the most 
noticeable development of recent years has been the increase 
in the number of Estate Schools. This is due chiefly to a 
Government ordinance requiring estates to make provision for 


the education of the children of their labour force. Though 
the ordinance fails in that it contains no clau-e for enforcing 
attendance, a large number of estates have provided schools 
and many of these are under the management of the mission 
aries. A smaller number are both managed and financed by 
the missionaries. Educationally, they are of doubtful value 
owing to the irregularity of the attendance, though this, we 
hope, will be remedied to a great extent by the provisions of 
a new labour ordinance which will limit the employment of 
very young children in manual labour on the estates. From 
a missionary point of view, the chief points in favour of many 
of them are that they provide a point d appui for beginning 
work among the coolies of an estate, and that the school 
building is useful a? a meeting-place for the Christians. 


IT is hoped that the foregoing pages have given a fair and a 
readable account of the work of the Church Missionary 
Society in Ceylon during the century which ended in the 
year 1918 and that the reader will rise from their perusal 
with some idea of what God has wrought by this imperfect 
and unworthy instrument. He has given to all concerned in 
the work much cause for praise and thanksgiving for the 
measure of prosperity and progress which He has permitted 
them to witness, for the many souls brought into His 
Kingdom and for the moral uplift of the peoples of Ceylon. 

At the same time there is much cause for humiliation when 
it is borne in mind that throughout the century there have 
been multitudes, young and old, rich and poor, educated and 
illiterate, who, although they have had the Gospel of Christ 
put plainly before them, have either deliberately rejected it or 
turned away from it with indifference, as though it were 
something which did not concern them. The proportion of 
Christians to non-Christians in the whole island is still a 
fraction below ten per cent. This constitutes a loud call to 
the Ceylonese who have embraced the Christian religion to 
1 Take up the torch and wave it wide, 

for the work of evangelizing the country must now be left 
more and more in their hands, and dark places still abound 
which need to be illuminated with Gospel light. 

Say not, " The struggle nought availeth, 

The labour and the wounds are vain, 
The enemy faints not nor faileth, 

And as things have been they remain." 

For while the tired waves vainly breaking, 

Seem here no painful inch to gain, 
Far back, through creeks and inlets making, 

Comes silent, flooding in, the main. 

And not by eastern windows only 

When daylight comes, comes in the light ; 

In front the sun climbs slow, how slowly 
But westward, look, the land is bright. 


Jehovah, Thou hast promised 

The isles shall wait for Thee; 
The joyous isles of Ocean,^ 

The jewels of the sea ; 
Lo ! we, this island s watchmen, 

Would give and take no rest, 
(For thus hast Thou commanded,) 

Till our dear land be blessed. 

Then bless her, mighty Father, 

With blessings needed most, 
In every verdant village, 

By every palmy coast ; 
On every soaring mountain 

O er every spreading plain. 
May all her sons and daughters 

Thy righteousness attain. 

Give peace within her borders, 

Twixt man and man goodwill, 
The love all unsuspicious, 

The love that works no ill ; 
In loyal, lowly service 

Let each from other learn, 
The guardian and the guarded, 

Till Christ Himself return. 

To Him our land shall listen, 

To Him our land shall kneel, 
All rule be on His shoulder. 

All wrong beneath His heel ; 
Oh consummation glorious, 

Which now by faith we sing ; 
Come, cast we up the highway 

That brings us back the King. 



Abbreviations. Oxf., Oxford; Camb., Cambridge ; Dub. 
Dublin ; Dur., Durham ; Isl., Church Missionary College, 
Islington; d., deacon; p., priest; m., married; S.M., 
Sinhalese Mission ; T.M., Tamil Mission ; T.C.M., Tamil 
Cooly Mission ; T.C.K., Trinity College, Kandy ; Ret., 
Retired from Ceylon; C., Curate; V 7 ., Vicar; Rec., Rector; 
D., Died. 


1. Lambrick, Rev. Samuel (Matlock) m. 1827 Mary Ann 
Stratford, d. 1860. S.M. Ret. 1835. Tutor at Eton, 1816. 
Chaplain to Marquis of Cholmondeley, 1837. Compiled a 
Sinhalese Grammar and Vocabulary. D. 1854, aged 85. 

2. Mayor, Rev. Robert, son of Rev. John Mayor, of 
Shawbury.m. September 4, 1817, at St. George s, Everton, 
Charlotte Bickersteth, daughter of Rev. E. Bickersteth of 
Watton, and Secretary of the C.M.S. S.M. Ret. 1S28. V. of 
Acton and Rec. of Coppenstall, 1838. D. July 14, 1846, aged 
55. A soa, Rev. John Eytou Bickersteth Mayor, born 
Baddegama, January 28, 1825, became Professor of Latin, 
St. John s College, Cambridge, in 1872, and wrote several 
classical, philological and antiquarian works. He died 
December 1, 1910, aged 85. Another son, Rev. Joseph 
Bickersteth Mayor, was Professor of Classics at King s 
College, London, 1870-79, and died in November, 1916, 
aged 88. 

3. Ward, Rev. Benjamin (Wellington) m. Mary Meires. 
d. 1864. S.M. Ret. 1828. Hon. Canon of Carlisle, 1857. 


Rec. of Meesden, 1859. D. 1879, aged 87. A son, Rev. D. 
Ward, Vic. of Upton, Cheshire, died in 1912, aged 85. 

4. Knight, Rev. Joseph, born at Stroud on October 17, 
1787. T.M. m. (l) Mrs. S. B. Richards, D. April 26, 1825. 
(2) Mrs. E.S. Nichols, D. February 4, 1837 both widows of 
American missionaries. They were buried in churchyard of 
American Mission, Tellippalai, Jaffna. Wrecked off the 
Cape in 1838, died shortly after his return to Ceylon on 
October 11, 1840, and was buried at Cotta. 

The four above missionaries were ordained by Bishop 
Ryder, of Gloucester. 


5. Browning, Rev. Thomas (Stroud) m. Mary Stephens, 
D. 1839. S.M. Died at sea in July, 1838. 

6. Bailey, Rev. Joseph (Dewsbury) S. M. m. (l) Sophia 
Parkin, D. 1825. (2) 1834, Octavia Bulmer, D. 1864. D. 
at Cotta on March 19, 1844, aged 47, and buried there. 
Compiled a Church Hymn Book. 


7. Adley, Rev. William (Canterbury) T.M. m. (l) Lucy 
Coles, D. 1839. (2) 1841, Catherine Theodora Gauntlett, 
D. 1880. Ret. 1846. Rec. Rudboxton. D. 1889, aged 97. 


8. Selkirk, Rev. James (Harwich), St. Bees Coll., S.M. 
Mrs. Selkirk died in 1876. Two children, Emily Jane (1831) 
and John (1832) were buried in St. Paul s burial ground, 
Colombo. Chaplain of Hull Gaol. D. 1880, aged 81. Wrote 
in 1844 Recollections of Ceylon. Ret. 1840. 

9. Trimnell, Rev. George Conibere (High Wycombe), 
Isl. S.M. Ret. 1847. Mrs. Trimnell died in 1861. D. 1880, 
aged 80. 



10. Faught, Rev. George Steers, Isl. S.M. m. Anne Le 
Clerc. d, 1870. Ret. 1836. C. Bradfield. D. 1873, aged 72. 

Three children, Susan Margaret (1830), Marcus Steers 
(1835) and Godfrey Steers (1835), died and were buried at 


11. Ridsdale, Mr. William (Hull), S.M. m. on April 7, 
1832, at St Peter s, Colombo, Susan Dorothea, eldest daughter 
of Captain F. W. von Drieberg. Ret. 1836. A daughter, 
Mary Anne (1834), buried in Galle Face burial ground. 


12. Marsh, Rev. Joseph (Bonsall), Isl. S.M. Died at sea, 


13. Oakley, Rev. William (Hertford), Isl. S.M. Born 
October 3, 1808. m. 1839, Frances Mary King, D. in Kandy 
July 14, 1866. A tablet to ner memory in Trinity Church, 
Kandy. Wrote The Lord s Supper not a Sacrifice, Conver 
sation on the Christian Religion, Simple Truths of Chris 
tianity and several other tracts. Did not visit England aftei 
his arrival in 1835, and died in Nuwara Eliya on July 18, 
1886, in his 79th year. 

Mr. Oakley s only son sailed for England in the City of 
London in 1850, the vessel foundered and all on board 
perished. His only daughter, Mary, married at Kandy on 
May 10, 1867, Priestly Jacob, Head Master of the High 
School, Poona, son of the Rev. G. A. Jacob, D.D., Christ s 
Hospital, London. 


14. Powell, Rev. Henry (Reading), Isl. S.M. m. Mary 
Ann Heath. Ret. 1845. Vicar of Bolton and Hon. Canon of 
Manchester. D. 1898, aged 84. 



15. Haslam, Rev. John Fearby (Halifax), B.A., Camb. 
S.M. m. (1) 1837, Elizabeth Denton, D. 1839. (2) 1842, 
Sophia Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. J. Bailey, D. 1873. 
Compiled Vocabulary, and Arithmetic . Translated into 
Sinhalese Dr. Mill s Life of Christ. D. in Colombo 
March 19, 1850. Buried in Galle Face burial ground. 

The Haslams arrived on January 7, 1839. The first Mrs. 
Haslam died at Cotta on March 24, aged 25, and their 
daughter, Elizabeth, died on November S. Both buried in 
the Galle Face burial ground. 

16. Taylor, Rev. Francis W. (Luton), Isl. T.M. m. 
Caroline Bella Price. Ret. 1849. V. West Thorney. D. 
1887, aged 76. 


17. Johnson, Rev. J. Talbot (London), Isl. T.M. Ret. 
1849. m. Amelia Winn. Rec. Beccles. D. 1871. 


18. Greenwood, Rev. Charles (Cambridge), Isl. S.M. m. 
Harriet Winn, D. 1872. Drowned whilst bathing in the 
Gindara river at Baddegama on June 21, 1850, aged 37. 


19. Pargiter, Rev. Robert (Cornwall) d. 1846. p. 1847. 
T.M. m. (1) 1844, Charlotte Elizabeth Jones, D. 1849. (j) 
1851, Anna Matilda Palm, D. 1900. Ret. 1864. C.M.S. 
Association Secretary, 1865-1885. V. Towersey, 1885. D. 
Charmouth, April 1, 1915, aged 98. Mr. Pargiter went to 
Ceylon in 1844 under the Wesleyan Missionary Society and 
joined the C.M.S the following year. 

A son, Robert S. Pargiter, C.C.S., died as Assistant Govern 
ment Agent of Negombo in 1876. A daughter, Mrs. John 


Pole, died in Ceylon, and another son, A. H. Pargiter, died in 
Colombo in 1898. Another son, Rev. G. E. A. Pargiter, was 
Principal of St. John s College, Agra, 1883-91. 



20. Gordon, Rev. Alexander Douglas, Isl. S. M. Ret. 

1854. D. 1865. 

21. O Neill, Rev. James (Kilcoleman), Isl., B.D., Lam- 
beth. d. 1845. p. 1846. in. 1846, Elizabeth Adams, D. 
December 16, 1848, aged 27. T. M. Ret. 1854. V. Luton. 
D. December 28, 1896, aged 75. 

There is a marble bust of Mr. O Neill in Luton Parish 
ChurcL where he was Vicar for thirty-four years. A son, 
^ James Arthur, a physician in Devonshire; another son, 
Henry Edward, H. M. Consul at Rouen. 

22. Collins, Rev. Henry (Maidenhead), Isl. S.M. Ret. 
1849. D. 1860. 


23. Wood, Rev. Isaiah, Isl. S.M. m. Sarah Ann 
Spencer, D. 1873. Ret. 1861. D. 1889. 


24. Bren, Rev. Robert (Reading), Isl. T.M. m. Sarah 
Jordan Brown. Ret. 185S. D. 1885. Wrote Christianity 
and Hinduism Compared (Tamil). 

25. Parsons, Rev. George (Bath), Isl. S.M. m. Diana 
Alway, D. 1896. D. Colombo, April 18, 1866, aged 42. 
Buried in Galle Face burial ground. Wrote Exposition of 
the Thirty-nine Articles (Sinhalese). A tablet to his 
memory in Baddegama Church. Eldest son, Rev. G. H. 
Parsons, a C. M. S. missionary in Bengal, for many -years. 
A grandson, Rev. B. G. Parsons, C.M;S., Fuhkien. 



26. Fettitt, Rev. George (Birmingham), Isl. S.M. Tinne- 
velly, 1833-50. Ret. 1855. m. Louisa Hare, D. 1892. 
V. St. Jude s, Birmingham. D. 1873. Wrote Tinnevelly 
Mission (1850), Life of Rev. J. T. Tucker, The Mirror 
of Custom. (1862). 


27. Fenn, Rev. Christopher Cyprian, son of Rev. Joseph 
Fenn, Travancore. Born at Cottayam. M.A., Camb. d. 
1848. p. 1849. S. M. in. (l) 1859, Emma Poynder, D. 
1870. (2) 1872, Harriet Elizabeth Christiana Morris. Ret. 
1863. C. Ockbrock 1848-50. C.M.S. Secretary, 1864-94. 
D. October 12, 1913, at Tunbridge Wells, aged 90. Wrote 
(1868) Answer to Durlabdy Winodaniya. 

28. Higgens, Rev. Edward Thomas (Snodland), Isl. 
S.M. m. (1) Amelia Dyke, D. June 9, 1854. (2) 1858 r 
Annie Catherine Schon, D. 1911. Ret. 1900. D. June 11, 
1901, at Chatham, aged 78. Wrote No Salvation in 
Buddhism (Sinhalese). The first Mrs. Higgens, and their 
son, Edward Albert, who died on October 6, 1854, buried in 
Holy Trinity Churchyard, Kandy, 


29. Barton, Mr. Henry James (Ipswich), St. Aidan s r 

S.M. Ret. 1862. m. A. Allen. Afterwards ordained and 

Chaplain of Poplar Sick Asylum. 

30. Sorrell, Mr. Joseph, Highbury Training College, 
X.M. Ret. 1860. Afterwards ordained, d. 1863. p. 18,64, 
C. St. John s, Limehouse, 1901. Rec. of St. Nicholas , 
Holton, Somerset. D. November 1 1, 1916, aged 88. 



31. Collins, Rev. Richard, M.A., Camb. T.C.K. Ket. 
1880. m. (1) Frances Wright, D. 1862. (2) 1863, Frances 
Anne Hawksworth. V. Kirkburton. D. 190C, Wrote Philo 
sophy of Jesus Christ (1879), The After Life (1894) 
4 Missionary Enterprise in the Far East, and introduction to 
Leviticus in Pulpit Commentary. 


32. Whitley, Rev. Henry, B.A., Camb. Incumbent of 
Christ Church, Galle Face. m. 1855, Marcia Paterson. 
Accidentally killed by the falling of a wall of school room, 
Galle Face, November 10, 1860, aged 34. 

A tablet to his memory in Christ Church. 

33. Hobbs, Rev. Septimus (Portsea), Isl. T.C.M. m. 
1849, Sarah Westbrook, D. 1898. Ret. 1862. 1842-55 in 
Tinnevelly. Rec. Compton Vallence. D. 1898, aged 82, 


34. Jones, Rev. John Ireland, M.A., Dub. Isl. S.M. m. 
(1) Kitty Crawford Colclough, D. 1877. (2) 1882, Frances 
Matilda Sinclair. D. Colombo, November 12, 1903. Wrote 
Jubilee Sketches (1868), The Wonderful Garden (Sinha 
lese), Handbook of Sinhalese, Answer to Durlabdy 

Eldest son, Rev. Philip I. Jones, C.M.S., North India; 
second son, Beauchamp, died in Kegalle, and daughter, Mrs. 
H. W. Umvin, died in England. 


35. Mac Arthur, Rev. Charles Chapman, (lona), Isl. 
T.M. -m. Annette Cohen, D. 1898. Ret. 1867. Rec. Burling- 
ham. D. 1892. Wrote First Principles (Tamil). 


36. Foulkes, Rev. Thomas (Holywell), Isl. T.M. m- 
(1) Miss Maiben, D. 1853. (2) Mary Anne Ashley, D. 
February 6, 1859, aged 22. A tablet to her memory in 
Nellore Church. Tinnevelly, 1849-58. Madras, 1859-60, 
Only one year in Jaffna. 


37. Coles, Rev. Stephen, Highbury Training College. 
S.M. m. 1860, Elizabeth Nicklin, D. 1898. D. Colombo, 
1901. Wrote Essay on the Atonement. Comp. Scripture 
Text Book, Hymns for Children. Trans. My King 
(Sinhalese), Picture Tracts. 

38. Tonge, Rev. Robert Burchall (Manchester), B.A. r 
Lond. Isi. S.M. Ret. 1867. Mrs. Tonge died 1875. 
C. Gresley. 


39. Clowes, Rev. Josiah Herbert (Yarmouth), Isl. S.M. 
in. Susan Emily Seppings. Ret. 1866. C. Woodbridge, 
1867-68. C. Newton, 1868-70. Diocesan Inspector of 
Schools, 1880-96. Rec. Weston. D. Beccles, May 16, 
1911, aged 74. 

A son, Rev. E. G. Clowes, Rector of Weston ; a daughter 
married Rev. E. A. Fitch, C.M.S., E. Africa. 

40. Rowlands, Rev. William Edvvard (Worcester),, 
M.A., Oxf. Isl. Born October 30, 1837. d. 1861. p. 
1864. T. M. Ret. in 1884 and rejoined in 1907. m. (1) 
1863, Mary Black well Evans, d. 1877. (2) 1S88, Emily 
Charlotte Adams, D. 1889. C. Watermen s Church, Wor-, 
cester, 1861. Rec. Bonchurch, 1895-1906. Assistant Chap 
lain at Les Avants. 1906-07. Ret. 1918. 

A son, Rev. H. F. Rowlands, C.M.S., Punjab, killed in 
earthquake at Kangra in 1905 ; another son, Rev. F. W. 
Rowlands, Japan Mission. .... 



41. Bus well, Rev. Henry Dixon, Isl. d. 1862. p. 1863. 
T. M. m. 1862, Mary Sophia Cullis, D. 1892. Ret. 1865. 
C.M.S., Mauritius, 1866. Archdeacon of Seychelles, 1894. 

42. Pickford, Rev. John (Sheffield), St. Bees. T. C. M. 
Previously eleven years in Tinnevelly. m. Mary Turner, 
D. 1866. Ret. 1868. D. 1882. 


43. Allcock, Rev. John (Marston), Isl. S. M. m. 1867, 
Harriet Elizabeth Gladding, D. 1899. D. Kandy, 1S87. 

Eldest son, Rev. W. G. Allcock. C. St. John s, Baling. 


44. Good, Rev. Thomas (Kilbourne), Isl. B.D., Lam 
beth. d. 1866. p. 1867. T. M. m. 1867, Susan Brodie. 
Ret. 1874. C. Baggotrath, 1874-78. V. Sandford Ranelagh, 
1878. Wrote on Temperance. 

45. Mill, Rev. Julius Caesar (Lodi, Italy), T.M. Ret. 
1869. m. 1867 Catherine Mary Schaffter. 1869-75 Tinne 
velly. D. 1888. 


46. Fenn, Rev. David, M.A., Camb. T.M. Only four 
months in Ceylon. D. 1878. 

47. Dowbiggin, Rev. Richard Thomas (Hawkshead). 
Born April 27, 1838. Isl. S. M. m. 1869, Letitia Ann 
Layard. D. at sea near Suez on March 8, 1901. 

48. Griffith, Rev. Edward Moule (Birmingham), Isl. 
B.A., Camb. T. M. m. 1867, Mary B. Skinner Marshall. 
D. Jaffna, March 13, 1890, aged 47. 


49. Wood, Rev. David (Stockton on Tees), Isl. d. 1867. 
p. 1869. T.M. m. 1869, Margaret Webster. Ret. 1892.. 
Rec. Willand, 1898. Wrote Brief History of Prayer Book 

A son, Rev. A. R. Wood, V. Thorpe-le-Soken ; a daughter, 
Mrs. T. Gaunt, C.M.S., China. 


50. Clark, Rev. William (South wark), Isl. T.C.M. 
m. 1851 Mary Anne Baker. Ret. 1878. Wrote Expo 
sition of Prophecy, Christian Minister. 1848-68 in Tinne- 
velly. 1.880-84 in Travancore. D. at Highbury in 1013, 
aged 88. 


51. Unwin, Rev. Gerard Francis, Isl. d. 1873. p. 
1878. S. M. Ret. 1878. V. Frocester. 


52. Cavalier, Rev. Anthony Ramsden (Sheffield), Isl. 
d. 1874. p. 1875. T.C.M. m. 1876 Mary Grey. Ret. 
1880. 1883-85, Tinnevelly. Secretary, Z.B.M.S. V. Man- 
cester, 1915. 

53. Dunn, Rev. Thomas (Wallhouses), Isl. d. and p. 
1882. Ret. 1881. m. 1874, Jane A. Ford. 1882-84, British 
Columbia. 1886-90, Japan. 1904-10. Rec. Weare Gifford. 

54. Simmons, Rev. Jonathan Deane (Shiplake), Isl. d. 

1860. p. 1862. T.M. m. (l) 1860, Caroline J. Bolton, D. 

1861. (2) 1864, Ada Van Someren Chitty, D. 1900. Ret. 
1903. In Tinnevelly, 1861-74. D. March 27, 1914, 
Wokingham, Berks, aged 79. 


55. Smith, Mr. William. Ret. 1878. D. at sea. 



56. Newton, Rev. Henry, M.A., Dub. d. 1870. p. 1871. 
Incumbent, Christ Church, Colombo. Ret. 1885. C. St. 
Matthew s, Dublin, 1870-72. C. Christ Church, Leeson Park, 
1872-73. Inc. St. Paul s, Portarlington. 1873-76. Perp. C. 
St. Mark s, Brighton, 1885-95. V. Christ Church, Surbiton, 
1901-15. V. Haydon, 1916. 

57. Ferris, Mr. William Bridger, Isl. T.C.M. Ret. 1878. 
Ordained d. 1878. p. 1879. V. Christ Church, Worthing, 
1898. Hon. Canon of Chichester. 

58. Taylor, Mr. Isaac John. Born November 1, 1847. 
Isl. T.C.M. Ret. 1878. S. India, 1878-80. Ordained d. and 
p. 1880. N. W. Canada, 1884-1897. V. Linstead, 1907. 


59. Schaffter, Rev. William Pascal, Isl. T.C.M., son of 
Rev. P. P. Schaffter, C.M.S., Tinnevelly. m. 1861, Theresa 
Stammer, D. November 29, 1916. Ret. 1879. Tinnevelly, 

60. Blackmore, Rev. Edwin (Exmouth), Isl. T.M. 
D. Jaffna, 1879. Tinnevelly, 1874-78. 

61. Pickford, Rev. Joseph Ingham (Sheffield) d. and p. 
1878. Isl. T.M. m. 1880, Mary Young. Ret. 1907. C. Wing- 
neld, 1888-9. C. St. Mary s, Islington, 1897-98. V. Walpole, 


62. Fleming, Rev. George Thomas (Pimlico), Isl. T.M. 
.m. 1892, Minnie Frances Fleming, daughter of Rev. T. S. 

Fleming, formerly of the Chekiang Mission, who died on 
November 11, 1916, aged 90. D. Colombo, 1896. 

63. Garrett, Rev. John Galloway (Boyle), M.A., Dub. 
S.M. m. 1878, Eliza Margaret Bradshaw. D. Dublin, 1911. 


Father of Rev. Geo. Garrett, C.M.S., Uganda, also of 
Second Lfeut. William Oakley Garrett, killed in action in 
Mesopotamia, 1915. 


64. Glanville, Rev. Frederic (Exeter). Born November 
19, 1856. Isl. d. and p. 1880. T.C.M. m. (l) 1882. Frances 
Ann White, D. 1883. (2) 1885, Eleanor Keen. Ret. 1883. 
C. St. John Evang. Penge, 1880-81. C.M.S. Organizing Sec., 
1885-1901. V. St. Matthew s, Kingsdown, Bristol, 1901. D. 
Bristol, May 15, 1914. 

65. Balding, Rev. John William. Born at Horncastle, 
March 20, 1856. Isl. d. 1881. p. 1884. S.M. m. June 10, 
1884, Matilda Hall. Wrote Story of Baddegama Mission, 

Story of Cotta Mission, Centenary Volume of the Ceylon 
Mission Eldest son, Charles John Balding, A.M.I.C.E., 
drowned at Felixstowe in 1912, aged 27 ; youngest son, 
Second Lieut. Reginald Norman, fell in action in Mesopotamia 
in 1917, aged 22. 

66. Horsley, Rev. Hugh (Courtallam), M.A., Camb. 
d. 1873. p. 1877. T.M. m. 1877, M.E. Kendall. In Tinne- 
velly, 1873-79. Ret. 1894. V. Oulton. V. Eastwood. 


67. Field, Rev. John (Schull), Isl, d. 1880. p. 1881. S.M. 
m. 1872, Emily Jane Mattock. Ret. 1885. In Yoruba, 1877- 
79. C. Pitt Portion, Tiverton, 1880-82. British Columbia, 

68. Liesching, Rev. George Louis Pett. Born July 18, 
1856. Isl. d. 1882. p. 1885. S.M. m. 1882, Maude Edridge. 
Ret. 1901. C. St. Paul s, Dorking, 1892-3. St. Stephen s, 
Walthamstow, 1902-03. Bushbury, 1903-04. Bovington, 1904- 
07. V. Little Horwood, 1907. 

A daughter, Grace Liesching. Assistant Secretary of the 
Z.B.M.S., London. 



69. llsley, Rev. Joseph (Liverpool). -Born September 19,. 
1855. Isl. d. 1879. p. 1885. T. M. Ret. 1914. m. (1) 1881, 
Jeannette Morgan, D. 1905. (2) 1909, Isabella Jane 
Boesinger. In Tinnevelly, 1880-84. C. St. Giles , Northamp 


70. Thomas. Rev. John Davies, Isl., son of Rev. John 
Thomas, Megnanapurarn. In Tinnevelly, 1863-86. m. 1*63 
Mary Jane Green. T. M. D. Colombo, April 18, 1896, aged 
56. Buried in Kanatte Cemetery. Translated Whately s 
Evidences and Butler s Analogy, Part I into Tamil. 

Father of Dr. J. Llewellyn Thomas, many years in Colombo, 
of Mrs. T. S. Johnson, C.M.S. and Mrs. E. A. Douglas, C.M.S. 

71. Hodges, Rt. Rev. Edward Noel, D.D., Oxf. T.C.K. 
m. 1877 Alice Shirreff. Ret. 1889. Masulipatam, 1877-86. 
Bishop of Travancore and Cochin, 1890-1904. Rec. St. 
Cuthbert, Bedford, and Hon. Canon of Ely. A son killed in 
France in 1916. 


72. Fall, Rev. John William (Bedale), M.A., Camb. 
d. 1887. p. 1888. T. M. m. 1893, Ethel Berridge. Ret. 1897, 
C. Walcot, 1887-89. Jesmond, 1898-1900. Asst. Secy., 
C.P.A.S., 1900-02. V. St. Andrew s, Whitehall Park, 1902, 
V. Christ Church, Ware, 1917. 

73. Perry, Rev. Edward John (Stratford;, M.A., Oxf. 
T.C.K. Accidentally shot near Alutnuvvara on April 2, 1890, 
aged 34 years. Was of Worcester College, Oxford, and 
Pusey and Ellerton Scholar and had been a master at 
Merchant Taylors School. 



74. Napier- Clavering, Rev. Henry Percy, M.A., Camb. 
d. 1885. p. 1886. T.C.K. Ret. 1908. m. 1909, C.K.E. 
Gedge. C. Monkton Combe, 1885-89. Rec. Stella, 1900-07. 
Chaplain, Pussellawa. Clerical Secy., C.E.Z.M.S., London, 
1912-16. Chaplain, Beaufort War Hospital, Fishponds, 
Bristol, 1917. 

75. Dibben, Rev. Arthur Edwin, M.A., Camb. d. 1886. 
p. 1888. S. M. Secy, of Ceylon Mission. C. Fairfield, 1886- 
87. St. John s, Chelsea, 1887-89. 


76. Carter, Rev. James (Netherseale), M. A.., Camb. 
<1. 1889. p. 1890. m. (1) 1893, Mary Fertile, D. 1899. (2) 

1903, Agnes Layard Dowbiggin. T.C.K. and St. John s, 
Jaffna. Ret. 1904. Asst. Master, St. Oswald s Coll., Ellesmere, 
1888-89. C. Christ Church, Stone, 1890-91. C. Branston, 
1904-05. Rec. Kineton and Oxhill, 1905. 


77. Welchman, Rev. William (Bristol), M.A., Camb. 
d. 1890. p. 1891. m. Elizabeth Marshall Griffith, 1892. T. M. 
Ret. 1899. V. Holy Cross, Bristol, and Hon. Canon, 1901. 
Army Chaplain in France, 1915-16. 

A son, Lieut. Eric Welchman, fell in action, 1914, in France. 

78. Simmons, Rev. Sydney Mainwaring, son of the Rev. 
J. D. Simmons. Isl. d. 1897. p. 1898. m. (1) 1897. 
Beatrice Reynolds, D. 1907. (2) 1909, Helena Elsie Marion 
Walker. S.M. Ret. 1915. C. Christ Church, Great Woriey, 
1915. Rec. Little Laver, 1917. 

79. Carus-Wilson, Mr. Ernest Jocelyn. m. 1898, Kathe- 
rine Mary Chapman. S.M. Ret. 1899. 



80. Heinekey, Rev. Henry Edward, Lond. Coll. Div 

d. 1889. p. 1890. m. 1892, Ellen Flora Harris. S. M. Ret. 
1905. Compiled Sinhalese Birthday Text Book. Only 
child died and buried at Baddegama. C. St. Paul s, Stratford, 
1889-91. C. St. Cuthbert s, West Hampstead, 1891-93. V. 
St. George s, Westcombe Park, 1906. C. St. Thomas , Hull, 
1916. V. St. Peter s, Drypool, Hull, 1917. 


81. Mathison, Major Gilbert Hamilton Fearon. m. 1906,, 
Edith Alary Tucker. Ret. 1909; S. M. Formerly Major iti 
Alexandra P.W.O., Yorkshire Regt. 


82. Ryde, Rev. Robert William (Brockley), M.A., Camb. 
T.C.K. and St. John s, Jaffna m. 1897, Emily Margaret 
Loveridge. S. M. D. Colombo, 1909. 


83. Hamilton, Rev. James, B.A., Dub. d. 1876. p. 1878. 
T.M. m. 1880, Wilhelmina M.B. Moore. Ret. 1897. In 
cumbent of Thornhill, Ireland. 


84. Townsend, Rev. Horace Crawford (Clonakilty), B.A., 
Dub. d. 1893. p. 1894. m. 1899, Mary Edith Grace Young. 
T.C.M. Ret. 1903. C. Ballymena, 1893-96. Incumbent, 
Craig Army Chaplain, France, 1915-17. Awarded Military 
Cross (Fourth Class), 1917. 


85. Hanan, Rev. William John (Cahir), M.A., Dub. 
d. 1895. p. 1897. m. 1899, Miriam Clarke. T. M. C. Cahir, 


86. Thompson, Rev. Jacob (Liverpool;, M.A., Camb. 
.d. 1888. p 1894. m. 1888, Amy Beatrice Brockbank. St. John s 

College, Jaffna. Travancore, 1888-94. C. Blundell Sands, 
1895-96. C. Peel, 1896-7. Brother of Rt. Rev. J. D. 
Thompson, Bishop of Sodor and Man. 

A son, Lieut. H. B. Thompson of the Berkshires, was 
awarded the Military Cross in December, 1916, was wound 
ed and missing the same month. Another son, Second Lieut. 
R. Denton Thompson, joined a Motor Cycle Signalling 
Corps, and a third son, Second Lieut. J. Cyril Thompson of 
the East Lanes., was taken prisoner. 


87. Butterfield, Rev. Roland Potter (Aylsham), Isl. M.A., 
Our. d. 1900. p. 1901. ra. 1904, Clara Herbert. T.C.M. 

88. Pilson, Rev. Arthur Ashfield (Birts Morton), M.A., 
Oxf. T.C.K. D. April 30, 1902, at Nuwara Eliya, aged 29. 

89. Purser, Rev. George Arthur, Isl. d. 1911. p. 1912. 
S.M. m. 1911, Elizabeth Beatrice Sparrow, S.M. 


90. Booth, Rev. Wilfrid, B.A. ? Oxf, d. 1895. p. 1896. 
m. 1904, Constance Magdalene Clift. T.C.M. C. Great 
Yarmouth, 1895-1900. D. Teignmouth, March 23, 1918. 

91. Shorten, Rev. William Good, Isl. B.:\., Dur. d. 1901. 
p. ,1903. S.M. m. 1907, Amy Kathleen Deering, S.M. 


92. Johnson, Rev. Thomas Sparshott, Isl. B.A., Dur. 
d: 1902. p. 1903. T.C.M. m. 1905, Annie Elizabeth Mary 
Thomas, T.M. 


93. MacLulich, Rev. Archibald MacLulich (Clonaiin), 
M.A., Dub. d. 1899. p. 1902. T.C.K. Ret. 1909. C. Tuam, 
1899-1900. C. Carrickfergus, 1900-02. V. Holy Trinity, 


94. Ferrier, Rev. John William, Moore Coll , Sydney 
d. and p. 1912. L.Th., Dur.-m. 1901, Evelyn May Garland 

5.M. Accountant of Mission till 1910 ; rejoined 1915, having 
been ordained in Australia. 


95. Fraser, Rev. Alexander Garden, M.A., Oxf . d. 191 ; 
p. 1915. m. 1901, Annie Beatrice Glass. T.C.K.. Uganda^ 
1900-04. Army Chaplain, France, 1917. 

~6. Phair, Rev. Robert Hugh Oliver, B.A., Manitoba 
Isl. d. 1904. p. 1906. Son of the Rev. Archdeacon Phair 
of Winnipeg. S.M. 

97. Storrs, Rev. Arthur Noel Coopland, B.A. Camb - 
d. 1887. p. 1888. m. 1893, Anna Maria Louisa Fitton. T CM 
Tinnevelly, 1889-04. Son of Rev. W.T. Storrs, CMS 
India. Ret. 1904. 


98. Walmsley, Rev. Alfred Moss (Stockport), M.A., Camb 
~d. 1906. p. 1907. m. 1906, Alice J. Murgatroyd, B.Sc , 
London. Trinity College, 1906-1911. S.M., 1911. Served in 
Mesopotamia, 1918. 

99. Weston, Rev. George Thomas (Langley), Isl -d 
1906. p. 1907. T.M. Ret. 1911. Planters Chaplain, Matale 

100. Senior, Rev. Walter Stanley, M.A., Oxf d 1903 
p. 1904. T.C.K., 1906-1915. Incumbent of Christ Church 
Colombo, 1915. m. 1907, Ethel May Poole, T.M. Author 
of Pisgah or The Choice, the triennial prize poem on a 
sacred subject in the University of Oxford, 1914. 


101. Gibson, Rev. John Paul Stewart Riddell MA 
Camb. F.I.A.-d. 1906. p. 1907. m. 1904, Kathleen" May 
Armitage. T.C.K., 1908-1914. Training Colony, Peradeniya, 


102. Saunders, Mr. Kenneth James, B.A., Camb. T.C.K.- 
Ret. 1913. Y.M.C.A., Calcutta, Rangoon. Trans. Dham- 
mapada into English. Author of Maitri The Coming One, 
Buddhist Ideals, Two Heroes of Social Service (St. Francis 
and St. Dominic), The Candid Friend, or Buddhism from 
Within, The Vital Forces of Southern Buddhism in relation 
to the Gospel, Adventures of the Christian Soul, and 
several other pamphlets and articles. 

103. Campbell, Mr. Norman Phillips, M.A., Oxf. T.C.K. 
m. 1913, Lettice Margaret Armitage (a sister of Mrs. P, 
Gibson). Joined H.M. s Forces in 1914, obtained commission 
as Captain in Royal Engineers, fell in action on May 3, 1917. 


104. Finmmore, Rev. Arthur Kington, Isl. M.A., Dur. 
d. 1885. p. 1888. Inc. Christ Church, Colombo. T.C.M. m. 
1885, Mary Elizabeth Hughes. In South India, 1885-90. 
Mauritius, 1893-01. C.M.S. Organizing Secy., 1901-08. C. 
Eastbourne, 1908-09. Army Chaplain, France, 1915-16. 
A son, Lieut. David Keith Finnimore, died from wounds in a 
military hospital on May 10, 1917. Another son, Major A. C. 
Finnimore, in the Royal Engineers ; a daughter, Miss D. E. 
Finnimore, a missionary at Palamcotta. 

105. Mulgrue, Mr. George Robert. T.C.K. Ret. 1915. 


106. Gaster, Rev. Lewis John, Isl. d. 1910. p. 1912. 
T.C.K. m. November 18, 1911, Harriet Elizabeth Hobson, 


107. Houlder, Mr. Alfred Claude (Croydon), B.A., Oxf. 



108. McPherson, Rev. Kenneth Cecil, B.A., Oxf. T.C.K 
d. 1915. p. 1917. 



1. jayasinghe, Rev. Cornelius. d. 1839. p. 1843. Educated 
at Cotta Institution. First Catechist and Interpreter. Stationed 
at Talangama and Slave Island. In 1867, Trinity Church, 
Kandy. Editor of the Sinhalese CM. Record. D. Colombo 
on November 18, 1876. Mr. Jayasinghe s name stands fourth 
on the C.M.S. List of Native Clergy and Mr. A Gunasekara s 

2. Gunasekara, Rev. Abraham. d. 1839. p. 1843 by 
Bishop Spencer. Educated at Cotta Institution. Worked 
in Baddegama and died there on June 27, 1862, aged 60. 
The son of Bastian Gunasekara, who was born in 1773 and 
died in 1853. The father of Rev. H. Gunasekara, who died 
in 1916, Paul Gunasekara, a catechist and schoolmaster for 
fifty years, who died on January 3, 1917, aged 74 years, and 
Mrs. B. Karunaratna, a Bible woman for many years. A 
grand- daughter married Rev. T. G. Perera, and another 
married Rev. A. B. Karunaratne. 

3. Senanayake, Rev. Cornelius. d. 1846. p. 1851. 
Educated at Cotta Institution. Transferred to Colonial 
Establishment in 1852 and died in 1886. Wrote a Sinhalese 
Church Hymnal. 

4. De Livera, Rev. James Andris. d. 1861. p. 1867. 
Educated at Cotta Institution. Stationed at Kandy and 
Nugegoda. Died December 23, 1868. At his examination 
for Deacon s orders by Bishop Chapman, he was offered his 
choice between the Greek Testament and the Sinhalese Bible 
and he unhesitatingly chose the former. 

5. Gunasekara, Rev. Henry. d. 1867. p. 1871. Educated 
at Baddegama Seminary and Cotta Institution. (1) Pupil 
Teacher, (2) Catechist, (3) Pastor. Stationed at Nugegoda, 
Colombo, and Trinity Church, Kandy. Retired in 1909. 



Died May 24, 1916, at Lunawa. Mr. Gunasekara was 
married in 1870, and his widow died on November 1, 1916. 
A son of Rev. A. Gunasekara. 

6. de Silva, Rev. Hendrick. d. 1868. p. 1885. Educated 
at Cotta Institution, (l) Schoolmaster, (2) Catechist, (3) 
Pastor at Cotta, Nugegoda and Talangama. Died at Negombo 
on March 12, 1891. 

7. Jayasinha, Rev. Daniel. d. 1868. Educated at Cotta 
Institution. (1) Schoolmaster, (2) Catechist, (3) Pastor at 
Katukelle, Nugegoda and Cotta. Died at Cotta on January 1, 

8. Wirasinha, Rev. Bartholomew Peris. d. 1869. Edu 
cated at Cotta English School. (1) Schoolmaster at Cotta, 
(2) Catechist for sixteen years, (3) Pastor at Kegalle. Retired 
in 1894 and died in 1900. 

9. Kannanger, Rev. Hendrick. d. 1869. (1) School 
master, (2) Catechist, (3) Pastor at Talangama, Cotta, Ben- 
tota. Retired 1885, and died on July 13, 1894. Father of Mrs. 
Wirakoon, Head Mistress of Baddegama Girls Boarding 
School . 

10. Perera, Rev. Garagoda Arachchige Bastian. d. 1881. 
p. 1886. Retired 1916. The son of Garagoda Arachchige 
Don Abraham Perera and Thudugalage Dona Christina. 
Born at Talangama on December 19, 1836. Stationed at 
Balapitiya, Baddegama, Cotta and Colombo. Celebrated 
golden wedding and fifty-fourth anniversary of service with 
C.M.S. in 1914. Mrs. Perera died the following year. 
A daughter married Mr. H. C. Jayasinghe of T.C.K. 

11. Amarasekara, Rev. Abraham Suriarachchi. d. 1881. 
p. 1884. Stationed at Kegalle, Dodanduwa and Kandy. 
Retired in 1885 and became (l) Curate of Holy Emma 
nuel, Moratuwa, (2) Incumbent of Matale. Founder of 
Matale Mission to the Duriyas. 

12. Kalpage, Rev. Johannes Perera. d. 1881. p. 1887. 


Kurunegala, Kegalle, Baddegama, Dodanduwa, Bentota. 
Died 1903 from the effects of a crushed finger, and buried 
in Kanatte cemetery. Father of Rev. J. A. Kalpage of 

13. Amarasekara, Rev. Gregory Suriarachchi. d. 1887. 
p. 1889. Educated at Baddegama and T.C.K. (1) School 
master, (2) Pastor, Cotta, Nugegoda and Trinity Church, 
Kandy. Celebrated twenty-fifth anniversary of ordination to 
Priesthood in 1914. A brother of Rev. A. S. Amarasekara. 

14. Botejue, Rev. Welatantrige Lewis. d. 1889. Edu 
cated at Cotta Institution. (1) Catechist, (2) Pastor at 
Mampe and died there on May 13, 1895. Father of Rev. 
W. E. Botejue. 

15. Seneviratne, Rev. Henry William. d. 1889. Gam- 
pola. Retired 1902. Died in 1917, aged 80. 

16. Colombage, Rev. James. d. 1894. p. 1898. Edu 
cated at T.C.K. Baddegama and Kegalle. Retired and 
joined the staff of St. Paul s, Kandy. 

17. Daundesekara, Rev. Frederic William. d. 1894. 
p. 1910. Educated at Kurunegala and T.C.K. Colombo and 
Kegalle. Retired. 

18. Botejue, Rev. Welatantrige Edwin. d. 1896. p. 1901. 
Educated at T.C.K. Mampe. Ret. 1902. Incumbent of 

19. Perera, Rev. Theodore G. d. 1896. p. 1898. Edu 
cated at Cotta English School. Talangama. m. a grand 
daughter of Rev. A. Gunasekara. Ret. in 1902. 

20. Perera, Rev. D. Joseph. d. 1896. p. 1904. 
Colombo. Died in 1912. 

21. Gunatilaka, Rev. Robert Teuton Eugene Abeya- 
wickrama. d. 19C3. p. 1905. Baddegama, Dodanduwa, 
Cotta, Mampe. 

22. Welikala, Rev. Don Louis. d. 1903. p. 1905. 
Talangama and Colombo, m. a sister of Rev. J. Colombage. 


23. Wikramanayake, Rev. John Henry. d. 1903. p. 
1905. Mampe, Nugegoda. 

24. Wijesinghe, Rev. Charles. d. 1903. Gampola, 
Kurunegala, Liyanwela. Ret. 1916. 

25. Seneviratne, Rev. James Gregory Newsome. d. 
1909. p. 1913. Gampola. 

26. Wickramasinghe, Rev. Benjamin Perera. -d. 1909. 
p. 1914. Mampe. Cotta. 

27. Ramanayake, Rev. John Perera. d. 1913. p. 1917. 
(1) Schoolmaster, (2) Catechist, (3) Pastor, Homagama and 

28. Jayasundra, Rev. D. S. d. 1915. Talampitiya. 

29. de Silva, Rev. W. Bernard. d. 1915. Educated at 
T.C.K. (D Catechist, (2) Pastor. Baddegama. 

30. Weerasinghe, Rev. C. B. Educated T.C.K. Master 
at T.C.K. d. 1918. Kurunegala. 


1. Hensman, Rev. John. d. 1863. p. 1865. Educated at 
Cotta Institution. Teacher, Nellore, 1837. Catechist, 
Chundicully, 1840. Copay, 1848. Pastor, Copay. Died Sep 
tember 5, 1884. 

2. Champion, Rev. George. Born October 1. 1824. d. 
1865. p. 1870. Educated at Batticotta Seminary. (1) Cate 
chist, (2) Pastor, Nellore, and Chundicully. Retired 1902. 
Died 1910. Celebrated Jubilee of his C.M.S. Service in 1894. 

3. Hoole, Rev. Elijah. d. 1865. p. 1870. Pundit, 185CX 
Catechist, Chundicully, 1852. Pastor. 

Died at sea July, 1881, on his way home from Bishop s 
Assembly at Colombo. 

4. Handy, Rev. Trueman Parker. d. 1865. p. 1870. 
Educated at Batticotta Seminary. School Inspector, 1850. 
Pundit, 1851. Catechist, 1856. Pastor at Nellore. died 
May 17, 1885. 


5. Peter, Rev. Pakkyanathan. d. 1872. p. 1874. 
Teacher, 1856. T. C. M. Catechist, 1862. Assistant 
Missionary, Pelmadulla, 1892. Died June 15, 1895. 

6. Peter, Rev. John S. d. 1872. p. 1874. Retired 1877. 
T.C.M. Pastor, Kandy. Died 1906. 

7. Gabb, Rev. John. d. 1876. p. 1883. Retired 1883. 
(1) 1876-81, Mauritius. (2) 1881-83, Ceylon. (3) 1883-94, 

8. Gnanamuttu, Rev. Arulananthar.. d. 1881. p. 1885. 
Retired 1897. Died 1906. Schoolmaster, Catechist, Pastor 
T.C.M. , Dickoya, Kandy. 

9. Samuel, Rev. Samuel. d. 1878. p. 1881. Educated at 
Palamcotta Training institution. Son of Rev. A. Samuel of 
Tinnevelly. 1878-84, Tinnevelly. 1884-95, Colombo. Died 
May 6, 1895, in Colombo. 

10. Niles, Rev. John. d. 1885. p. 1889. Copay. Died 
March 23, 1892. 

11. Backus, Rev. John. d. 1885. p. 1889. (1) School 
master, (2) Catechist, ^3) Pastor, Pallai, Nellore. Celebrated 
his fiftieth year of C.M.S. service in 1913. Mrs. Kackus 
died December 17, 1916. 

12. Handy, Rev. Charles Chelliah. d. 1891. p. 1896. 
B. A., Calcutta University. T.C.K. Head Master of St. 
John s College, Jaffna. Died 1908. 

13. Virasinha, Rev. Arulumbalam Russell. d. 1892. p. 
1900. T.C.K. Stationed T.C.M. Died 1914. 

14. Daniel, Rev. George. d. 1893. Catechist, 1858. 
Copay. Seventy-five years of age on retirement in 

15. Williams, Rev. Charles Tissaverasingam d, 1893. 
p. 1896. T.C.K. Pastor, Kokuvil, Anuradhapura, Kandy, 

16. Morse, Rev. Samuel. d. 1893. p. 1896. Nellore. 
Died 1909. 


17. Matthias Rev. Arulpragasam. d. 1893. p. 1898. 
Vavuniya. Copay. Retired after forcy years of service in 


18. Sathianathen, Rev. Aseervathem. d. 1899. p. 1902. 
T.C.M. Nanuoya, Dickoya. Retired 1914. Died 1916. 

19. Daniel, Rev. John Vethamanikam d. 1900. p. 1902. 
Head Master of Borella Boys Boarding School, Incumbent of 
Tamil Congregation, Christ Church, Colombo. 

20. Satthianadhan, Rev. Tillainather David. d. 1903. 
p. 1906. T.C.M. Badulla. 

21. Arulananthan, Rev. Gnanamuttu Manuel. d. 1906. 
p. 1908. Incumbent, Emmanuel Church, Colombo. 

22. Pakkiariathan, Rev. Asirvatham. d. 1906. p. 1908. 
T.C.M. Lindula. 

23. Doss, Rev. James G. d. 1907. p. 1910. T.C.M. 

24. Somasundaram, Rev. Sangarappillai Samuel. d. 1909. 
p. 1911. B.A., Calcutta. Master in St. John s College, 
Jaffna. Chundicully. 

25. Nathaniel, Rev. Gunaratnam N. d. 1909. p. 1913. 
Jaffna. 1917 Matale. 

26. Welcome, Rev. Jesson Daniel. d. 1910. p. 1914. 

27. Daniel, Rev. Samuel Chelvanayakam. d. 1910. p. 
1914. Pallai. 

28. Paukiam, Rev, Paul Abraham. d. 1912. p. 1914. 
Rakwana T.C.M. Died 1918. 

29. Yorke, Rev. John Vedamanickam. d. 1914. p. 1917. 
Avisawela T.C.M. 

30. Thomas, Rev. S. M. d. 1915. p. 1917. Wellawatte 

31. Ratnathicum, Rev. J. S. d. 1915. Jaffna. 

32. Refuge, Rev. M. d. 1915, Matale. 1917,.Vavuniva. 





1. Knight, Miss Jane (Stroud), T.M. m. Rev. D. Poor, 



2. Cortis, Miss Hannah. S.M. m. Rev. J. A. Jetter, 


3. Stratford, Miss Mary Ann. S.M. in. Rev. S. Lam- 
brick, 1827. 


4. Bailey, Miss Sophia Elizabeth. S.M. m. Rev. J. F. 
Haslam, 1842. 


5. Young, Miss Mary (Louth), sister of late Bishop 
R. Young of Athabasca. T.M. m. Rev. J. I. Pickford, 


6. Hall, Miss Matilda, sister of Rev. j. W. Hall and 
Miss Margaret Hall, and cousin of Miss E. Hall, of the 
C.M.S., India. T.M.m. Rev. J. W. Balding, 1884. 


7. Young, Miss Eva (Louth), sister of Nos. 5 and 12. 
T. M. -m. Rev. H. Robinson, N. W. Canada. 


8. Higgens, Miss Amelia, daughter of Rev. E. T. Higgens. 
1877 in service of I.F.N.S., Punjab. S.M. 



9. Child, Miss Beatrice. T.M. Ret. 1898. 

10. Denyer, Miss Ann Murton. S.M. Ret. 1915. 


11. Phillips, Miss Helen Plummet. S.M. Previously 
Principal of Clergy Daughters School, Sydney. Ret. 1905. 

12. Young, Miss Emily Sophia. T.M. Sister of Nos. 5 

and 7. Ret. 1910. 


13. Heaney, Miss Kate, Highbury Training Home. 
T.M. Ret. 1898. 

14. Saul, Miss Mary, Highbury Training Home. T.M. 
Ret. 1899. 

15. Paul, Miss Annie Elizabeth, Highbury Training 
Home. T.M. Ret. 1897. 

16. Josolyne, Miss Ellen Maria. The Willows. S.M. 


17. Forbes, Miss Constance Cicele. S.M. Ret. 1896. 

18. Case, Miss Lizzie Ann, Highbury Training Home. 
T.M. Ret. 1912. m. Rev. G. Hibbert-Ware, S.P.G. 


19. Luxmoore, Miss Caroline Noble. The Willows. 
S.M. m. 1896, Rev. J. H. Mackay, Murree. 

20. Finney, Miss Harriet Ellen, daughter of Rev. 
W. H. Finney, Birkin. The Olives. T. M. Ret. 1904. 

21. Loveridge, Miss Emily Margaret, Highbury Train 
ing Home. S. M. m. Rev. R. W. Ryde, 1897. 

22. Gedge, Miss Mary Sophia (Redhill). The Willows. 



23. Spreat, Miss Helen Mary Warren. T. M. Ret. 1897. 
Died in London, 1898. 


24. Wood, Miss Minnie Alice, daughter of Rev. D. Wood. 
The Olives. T.M. Ret. 1898. 

25. Dowbiggin, Miss Agnes Layard, daughter of Rev. 
K. T. Dowbiggin. S. M. m. Rev. J. Carter, 1904. 

26. Thomas, Mrs. J. D. T.M. Ret. 1914. Remained 
on staff after the Rev. J. D. Thomas death. 


2.7. Townsend, Miss Susan Henrietta Murray. The 
Willows. S.M. Daughter of Rev. H. W. Townsend of Abbey- 
strewry and sister of Rev. H. C. Townsend. 

28. Earp, Miss Annie Louisa (Capetown). The Olives. 
S.M. Ret. 1915. 


29. Goodchild, Miss Amy Chanter, St. Hugh s Hall, Oxf . 
The Willows. Principal of Chundicully Girls School. m. 
Mr. C. V. Brayne. C.C.S. 1906. 

30. Thomas, Miss Annie Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. 
J. D. Thomas. The Olives. 1887-93 in Tinnevelly under 
C.E.Z.M.S. m. Rev. T. S. Johnson, 1905. T.M. 

31. Young, Miss Maud Lucy. The Willows. S. M. Ret. 

32. Franklin, Miss Valentina Maria Louisa. The Willows. 
T.M. Ret. 1912. m. Rev. Ashton. 


33. Payne, Miss Harnette Edith. The Willows. T.M. 
-Ret. 1911. 

34. Leslie Melville, Miss Lucy Mabel, daughter of the 
late Rev. Canon Leslie Melville, Welbourn. The Willows. 

35. Nixon, Miss Lilian Evelyn, B.A., Royal Univ. of 
Ireland. The Olives and Willows. Principal of C.M.S. 
Ladies College, Colombo. Ret. 1914. 


36. Whitney, Miss Elizabeth. St. John s, N.B. Canada. 
C.M.S. Ladies College, Colombo. 

37. Howes, Miss Eva Julia. The Willows. T.M. 


38. Tileston, Miss Mary Wilder, B.A. Harvard Univ. 
The Olives. Ret. 1902. S.M. 

39. Dowbiggin, Mrs. R.T. S.M. Remained on staff after 
Mr. Dow biggin s death. 

40. Beeching, Miss Edith Grace, Highbury Training 
Home. Pacific Mission, 1894. T.M. m. Mr. J. B. Dutton, 
C.C.S., 1906. 

41. Lloyd, Miss Sarah Cecilia. The Olives. S.M. Ret. 
1907. Rejoined 1914. Died 1918. 


42. Vines, Miss Ellen Campbell, daughter of Rev. C. E. 
Vines, C.M.S., Agra. 1889, South India. T.M. m. Rev. 
W. S. Hunt, C.M.S. , 1907. 


43. Board, Miss Annie Theresa (Clifton). The Olives. 
S.M Ret. 1907. 


44. Ketchlee, Miss Sophy Laura. The Olives. m. Rev. 
A. N. MacTier, C.M.S., Tinnevelly. 

45. Poole, Miss Ethel May. The Olives. T.M. Daughter 
of Bishop Poole, first C. of E. Bishop in Japan. m. Rev. 
W. S. Senior, 1907. 

46. Page, Miss Sophia Lucinda (Bath). The Olives. 
Principal, Chundicully Girls High School. 

47. Bennitt, Miss Edith Gertrude (Harborne), L.L.A. 
St. Andrew s Univ. The Olives. S.M. Ret. 1908. 


48. Browne, Miss Constance Emily, B.Sc., Univ. of 
Wales. C.M.S. Ladies College and T.C.K. Ret. 1914. 


49. Deering, Miss Amy Kathleen. S.M. m. Rev. W. G. 
Shorten, 1907. 


50. Sparrow, Miss Elizabeth Beatrice. S.M. m. Rev. 
G. A. Purser, 1911. 

51. Tisdall, Miss Adairine Mary. The Willows. T.M. 

52. Henrys, Miss Florence Emily. T.M. South India, 
190,2. Returned to India, 1917. 


53. Walker, Miss Helena Elsie Marion. S.M. m. Rev. 
S. M. Simmons, 1909. 

54. Hargrove, Miss Eleanor Mabel. Daughter of the 
late Rev. Canon Hargrove. The Willows. S.M. 

55. Hobson, Miss Harriet Elizabeth. Grand-daughter of 
Rev. J. Hobson, C.M.S., China. S.M. m. Rev. L. J. Gaster, 

56. Horsley, Miss Anna Frances, Newnham. The Olives. 
Daughter of Rev. H. Horsley. C.M.S. Ladies College. - 
Ret. 1914. 


57. Led ward, Miss Mary Amelia. T.M. 


58. Kent, Miss Alys Emily, C.M.S. Ladies Coll., Colombo. 
m. Mr. H. S. Stevens, 1915. 


59. Morgan, Miss E. C.M.S. Ladies College. 

60. Opie, Miss Gwen Lilias Fanny, M.A., B.Sc. C.M.S- 
Ladies College. 

61. Higgens, Miss E. C. (In Local Connexion). 


62. Taylor, Miss J. R., L.L.A. Chundiculiy Girls High 



OF MARCH 8, 1921. 


The Local Governing Body of the C.M.S. Ceylon Mission 
shall be the Conference of men and women hereinafter refer 
red to as the Conference. 


The Conference shall consist of : 

(a) The Bishop of Colombo, if a member of the Church 
Missionary Society Chairman. 

(b) All ordained Missionaries of the Society. 

(c) All lay Missionaries in Home, Colonial, or Local Con 
nexion with the Society, both men and women. 

(d) Eight Ceylonese, of whom six shall be clergymen 
and two shall be from the laity, one man and one woman, 
annually elected by the Conference. Among the six clergy 
men, those priests in responsible charge of Districts formerly 
under the charge of European Missionaries shall first of all 
be included. The remainder shall be clergymen in Priests 
Orders elected annually by the whole body of Ceylonese 
clergy in connection with the C.M.S., provided that the six 
clerical representatives shall include at least two Tamils and 
two Sinhalese. 

(e) Seven lay members, primarily to advise on matters 
of finance, who shall be appointed by the Parent Committee, 
and shall hold office for three years, being eligible for re- 
appointment at the end of that period. 


(/) Any additional members who shall be appointed to 
membership by express resolution of the Parent Committee 
on the recommendation of Conference. 


While nothing shall be considered as outside the purview 
of the Conference as a whole, it should direct its attention 
more particularly to the larger matters of Mission policy, to 
receiving and dealing with the reports of its Committees, and 
to the opportunity for united devotion and intercession, devolv 
ing the main responsibility for actual administration, includ 
ing finance, on its Executive Committee. 

This Executive Committee shall direct the work of the 
Mission between meetings of the Conference, and shall con 
sist of 

(a) The Chairman of Conference. 
(/;) The Secretary of the Mission. 

(c) The Chairman and Secretary of the Women s 

(d) The seven laymen appointed by the Parent Com 

(e) Two Ceylonese, and four men and two women from 
the Missionary members of the Conference, to be elected by 
the whole body of the voting members of the Conference. 


There shall be a Finance Sub-Committee of the Executive 
Committee to consider and when required report to the Exe 
cutive Committee on matters of finance. This Sub-Commit 
tee shall consist of the seven lay members appointed by the 
Parent Committee, and three members elected by the Exe 
cutive Committee, together with the Secretary ex-officio.